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Endocrine Disords

Endocrine Disorders

QuestionAnswer
What are the 7 functions of the endocrine system? Reproduction; Stress response; Electrolyte balance; Energy metabolism; Growth; Maturation; Aging
What is the difference between exocrine and endocrine glands? Exocrine secrete into ducts and endocrine secrete directly into blood.
What are the different feedback systems? Negative; Positive; Complex; NS control; Rhythms
What is one of the important areas to assess when performing a physical assessment of the Endocrine system? Mental/emotional status.
What are the disorders for the anterior pituitary and the Posterior Pituitary? AP= Acromegaly; PP= SIADH
What are the Thyroid disorders? Hyper and Hypothyroidism
What are the parathyroid disorders? Hyper and Hypoparathyroidism
What are the Adrenal disorders? Cushing's syndrome, and Addison's disease
What is Acromegaly? Overproduction of GH leading to overgrowth of bones and soft tissue. (usually caused by benign pituitary tumor)
What are some assessment findings for Acromegaly? Hyperglycemia, polydipsia, polyuria, enlarged laryngeal tissues, visual disturbances, lethargy, muscle weakness.
What are some possible RN diagnosis for Acromegaly? Disturbed body image, impaired physical mobility, ineffective airway clearance.
What is the Care for Acromegaly? Surgery/Radiation therapy and hormone replacement for life; Drug therapy to reduce GH to normal levels.
What are some nursing managements for Acromegaly? Provide emotional support; Monitor blood sugar levels; Admin Meds; Safety; Monitor side effects of radiation.
What is SIADH? Abnormal production or sustained secretion of ADH
What does SIADH cause? Fluid retention, serum hypoosmolality, dilutional hyponatremia, hypochloremia, concentrated urine.
What are some assessment findings for SIADH? Low urine; increase body weight; muscle cramping, pain/weakness; Na decrease, vomiting, abdominal cramps, muscle twitching, seizures; lethargy, headache, confusion, coma.
What is the collaborative care for SIADH? Fluid restrictions; Loop diuretics; IV hypertonic saline solution
What is the Nursing management for SIADH? Monitor daily weights and LOC; I & O's and Na serum levels; Provide safety; Education
What is Graves disease? (hyperthyroidism) Autoimmune disease with unknown etiology; development of TSH receptor antibodies; Thyroid enlargement & excess thyroid hormone secretion. May destroy thyroid tissue = hypothyroidism.
What is a Thyrotoxic crisis? Heightened hyperthyroid signs (Severe tachycardia; HF; Shock; hyperthermia; restlessness; seizures).
What are the treatments for Thyrotoxic crisis? Reduce thyroid hormone levels; manage fever, fluid and stressors.
What are the assessment findings for hyperthyroidism? Goiter; Tachy; weightloss; Nervousness; irritable; Bruits upon auscultation of thyroid gland; confusion; changes in skin.
What are some possible RN Dx for hyperthyroidism? Activity intolerance; Imbalanced nutrition; Disturbed body image.
What is the collaborative care for hyperthyroidism? Radioactive iodine therapy; drug therapy; subtotal thyroidectomy.
What is the RN management for Hyperthyroidism? Monitor VS, weight, fluid balance; Promote comfort; provide emotional support; admin antithyroid meds; protect eyes.
What is Hypothyroidism? Insufficient thyroid hormone from destruction of thyroid tissue, defective hormone synthesis, decreased TSH, thyroiditis, iodine deficiency, or Graves's disease.
What are some assessment findings of Hypothyroidism? Weight gain; fatigue; impaired memory; slow speech; low exercise tolerance; SOB on exertion; Constipation; Cold intolerance; Hair loss; Myxedema.
What are some RN Dx's for Hypothyroidism? Activity intolerance r/t SOB on exertion; Constipation; Impaired memory; disturbed body image.
What is the Collaborative care for Hypothyroidism? Low-Calori diet; Drug therapy (Synthroid)
What is the RN management for Hypothyroidism? Encourage appropriate pace of activities; promote comfort, rest, and sleep; Prevent constipation; help to maintain skin integrity; provide emotional support; admin. drug replacement therapy.
What is Hyperparathyroidism? Increased secretion of PTH, leading to increased serum Ca levels. Has primary, secondary, tertiary.
What are some findings of Hyperparathyroidism? Muscle Weakness; Loss of appetite; Constipation; Fatigue; Shortened attention span; Osteoporosis; Renal failure, pancreatitis, cardiac changes.
What is the collaborative care for Hyperparathyroidism? Surgical therapy; Continued monitoring of lab values (bone densities); diet with high fluid intake and moderate calcium intake; drug therapy (bisphosphonates, oral phosphate; calcimimetic agents.
What is the RN management of Hyperparathyroidism? Encourage fluid intake to decrease renal calculi; I&O's; Safety; Monitor Electrolyte lab values; Encourage exercise program to strengthen bones.
What is Hypoparathyroidism? Inadequate PTH; characterized by hypocalcemia; may be due to neck surgery or decreased calcium absorption.
What are the assessment findings of Hypoparathyroidism? Tetany; Paresthesias of lips, hands and feet; Tremor, seizures; confusion; weakness; tachycardia; Laryngospasms.
What are the RN Dx's for Hypoparathyroidism? Acute pain r/t muscle spasms; Risk for ineffective airway clearance r/t spasms of laryngeal muscles; anxiety r/t threat to change in health status.
What is the collaborative care for Hypoparathyroidism? May require IV calcium chloride or calcium gluconate *(with EKG monitoring); Rebreathing to reduce neuromuscular symptoms; Oral calcium and/or vitamin D.
What is the RN management for Hypoparathyroidism? Administer Ca medications w/monitoring; Observe for tetany; Encourage diet that is high in calcium and low in phosphorus (green leafy vegetables, soybeans, tofu.
What is Cushings Syndrome? caused by Excess corticosteroids often from prologed administration of high dose corticosteroids; ACTH-secreting pituitary tumor; Adrenal tumors and ectopic ACTH-producing tumors.
What are the assessment findings of Cushings? Weight gain; muscle wasting; delayed wound healing; Purplish strie; Irritability, anxiety; HT
What are the possible RN Dx for Cushing's? Activity intolerance r/t fatigue/weakness; Disturbed body image; Risk for infection r/t suppression of immune system; Impaired skin integrity r/t delayed wound healing.
What is the collaborative care for Cushing's? Treatment to address underlying cause (surgical removal of tumor, revision of corticosteroid therapy); Drug therapy to inhibit adrenal function.
What is the RN managements of Cushing's? Emotional support; Prevent infection; Safety (falls/fractures); Provide post-adrenalectomy care.
When taking care of a patient with Cushing's disease what two interventions might be the most important? Monitoring FSBS; Protecting Pt. from exposure to infection.
What is Addison's Disease? Adrenocortical hypofunction due to insufficient secretion from adrenal cortex. An autoimmune response which destroys adrenal tissue.
What are the assessment findings of Addison's disease? Signs may be delayed until 90% of tissue is damaged; Skin hyperpigmentation; Fatigue; Depression; Anorexia; Fluid/Electrolyte imbalance. N/V, diarrhea.
What are some possible RN Dx's for Addison's? Activity intolerance; Disturbed body image; Deficient fluid volume; Risk for injury.
What is the collaborative care for Addison's? Replacement therapy (Hydrocortisone).
What is the RN Management for Addison's? Emotional support; Monitor Labs, VS, EKG, Fluid volume; Safety; Provide hormonal replacement; Education.
Created by: zj mepn