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AntiMicrobial Pharm.

Flashcards for 3rd Section of Pharmacology

QuestionAnswer
Prophylaxis Use of antibiotics to prevent infection rather than treat an infection
Empiric An educated guess; the use of antibiotics to cover a variety of possible organisms or the most likely
Pathogen Organisms that are causing an active infection
Normal Flora Those organisms normally found on the host. Usually considered non-pathogenic
Suprainfection Alterations in normal flora which allow the overgrowth of other organisms
Bactericidal Kills the organism
Bacteriostatic Inhibits the organism’s growth
MIC minimum inhibitory concentration
Synergy use of two antibiotics with different mechanisms of action to achieve better kill or inhibition of the organism
Signs and Symptoms that Confirm the Presence of Infection - fever, chills, sweats, weakness, malaise - sputum production (quantity, consistency, color, odor) - chest x-ray, WBC counts, urine analysis - inflammation (tender, edematous, erythematous), oozing, pus
Folate Antagonists (Sulfa Drugs/ Sulfonamides) Mechanism of Selective Toxicity - Bacterial cells are impermeable to folic acid and must synthesize folic acid to survive - Human cells do not synthesize folic acid. We receive folic acid as a vitamin in our diet
Folate Antagnoists (Sulfa Drugs/ Sulfonamides)MOA Sulfonamides use up much of the enzyme needed to convert PABA to folic acid, thus decreasing folic acid production
Sulfonamides are active against - Proteus mirabilis - Escherichia coli - Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) - Pneumocystis Jiroveci (formerly identified as Pneumocystis carinii)
Sulfonamides Therapeutic Indications - Urinary tract infections (Main Use) - Topical for burns and wounds - Some ophthalmic infections - Pneumocystis pneumonia (treatment and prophylaxis)
Sulfonamdies Adverse Effects - Allergic Reactions - rashes, photosensitivity, Stevens-Johnson syndrome - Nephrotoxicity - Crystalluria - adequate hydration - drink lots of water. Contraindicated in renal failure - Kernicterus - displace bilirubin from protein binding sites
Sulfonamides Drug Interactions Warfarin, Phenytoin
Trimethoprim - Drug Class Folate Antagonists
Trimethoprim MOA - Dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor - Dihydrofolate reductase converts folic acid to its active form, tetrahydrofolic acid
Trimethoprim Pharmacokinetics Similar to Sulfonamides
Trimethoprim Adverse Drug Reactions Can produce effects of folate deficiency if given in very high doses
Created by: KXA