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oxygen needs

oxygen lecture

QuestionAnswer
upper respiratory system pharynx, larynx, trachea
lower respiratory system lungs, bronchi branching throughout lungs
3 functions of the respiratory system gas exchange, fluid balance, acid-base balance (pH)
phases of oxygen needs ventilation, diffusion, perfussion
4 requirements essential for adequate ventilation adequate atmospheric oxygen, clear air passages, adequate stretch ability and recoil, intact CNS center
RBC normal blood values men= 4.2-5.4 million/mm3 women=3.6-5 million/mm3
Hct normal blood values men= 40-54% women=37-50%
Hgb normal blood values men= 14-16 gm/dl women= 12-15 gm/dl
highly responsive to inc. in blood CO2 medulla oblongata
hypoxia O2 dec. in cells/body
hypoxia can be related to what parts of respiration ventilation, diffusion, transport of gases by blood
early manifestations of hypoxia restlessness, anxiety, tachycardia, tachypnea
late manifestations of hypoxia bradycardia, extreme restlessness, dyspnea, cyanosis
chronic hypoxia fatigue, clubbing of fingernails
how to get a sample of sputum have patient cough from deep lungs into sterile container hydrate patient before and take deep breaths
hand held nebulizer aerosol mist, mobilization and expectoration of thick secretions, inc. perfusion ration, treatment of post-op atelectasis and hypostatic pneumonia
altered breathing pattern loss of adequate ventilation due to altered breathing patterns
nursing order of ineffective breathing patterns r/t anxiety AMB tachypnea, resp30/min stay calm, give short clear directions, orthopneic position, breath into paper bag
what is the rational for the orthopneic position maximize lung expansion
inspirometer measure amount of inspiration
assessments prior to and during oxygen therapy assess VS, breathing, airway, circulation
reasons for oxygen therapy low O2 in blood and air, trauma, blood loss, ischemic tissues
pulse ox measures oxygen saturation of hemoglobin. should be 92% and over
arterial blood gases measurements obtained to assess adequacy of oxygenation and ventilation, evaluate acid-base balance and to monitor effectiveness of therapy
oxygen is a drug that is... regulated, humidified, and signs are posted for caution
nursing responsibilities for oxygen patient body image changes, compliances, dryness and discomfort
nasal cannula maximum O2 % and liter flow 24-44% 1-6L
simple face mask maximum O2 % and liter flow 40-60% 5-10L
venturi mask maximum O2 % and liter flow 24-60% 4-12L
nursing action for patient with venturi mask ensure correct mask to meet doctors order, order needs to specify the fraction of inspired oxygen desired NOT the liter flow
non-rebreather mask maximum O2 % and liter flow 60-100% 6-15L
non-rebreather mask is used for... short term (1-2 days), delivers highest concentration possible
complications of oxygen therapy respiratory and circulatory depression, atelectasis, trachea-bronchitis, oxygen toxicity
activity intolerance state which patient experiences an inability, physiologically and psychologically, to tolerate activity
most activity intolerance is r/t... generalized weakness and debilitation secondary to acute or chronic illness and disease
defining characteristics for altered response to activity dyspnea, shortness of breath, abnormal HR and BP response to activity, failure for VS to return to resting rate after 3minutes, weakness, fatigue
risk factors for peripheral vascular disease: Arterial obesity, smoking, stress, family history
chronic arterial peripheral vascular disease atherosclerotic plaque which can lead to amputation, gangrene foot and poor healing
acute arterial peripheral vascular disease occlusive or complete obstruction > clot formed in arterial system
arteries distribute oxygenated blood to body
arterioles smaller arteries>these go to capillaries
capillaries smallest vessels, connector between arterioles and venules
venule smallest of veins>then turn into veins and carry blood back to heart
vein valves prevented backward flow of blood
acute venous peripheral vascular disease thrombus, thrombophlebitis
chronic venous peripheral vascular disease incompetent valves, stasis ulcers, varicose veins
arterial assessment pain, cold temp., pallor, absent pulse, paresthesia
pitting edema +3 deep pit, puffy appearance
pitting edema +4 deep pit, trankly swollen
5 methods of heat transfer conduction, convection, radiation, evaporation, diathermy
body's control of heat and cold hypothalamus, ANS
local application of heat... inc. blood flow, dec. blood viscosity, inc. capillary permeability, perspiration, dec. venous congestion, inc. tissue metabolism, dec. muscle tension
local application of cold... dec. skin sensation, blood flow, capillary permeability, lymph flow, metabolic needs, and inc. muscle tension, blood viscosity
factors which will modify both local and systemic application of heat and cold integrity of skin, ability to feel, diabetes, scar, peripheral vascular disease, LOC, spinal cord injury, malignancy
Hypoxia occurs if... the amount of oxygen delivered to tissues is too low
primary functions of the heart deliver deoxygenated blood to the lungs for oxygenation and oxygen and nutrients to the tissues
The nursing history includes information about the patient’s... cough, dyspnea, fatigue, wheezing, chest pain, environmental exposures, respiratory infection, cardiopulmonary risk factors, and use of medications
Nursing assessment include respiratory pattern, thoracic inspection, palpation, and auscultation for deviations from normal
what completes the database for a patient with decreased oxygenation Diagnostic and laboratory tests
Health promotion include vaccinations against flu and pneumonia, exercise programs, nutrition support, smoking cessation, and environmental assessment for pollutants and air quality
Airway maintenance requires mobilization of secretions by... increased fluid intake, humidification, or nebulization
Breathing exercises improve... ventilation, oxygenation, and sensations of dyspnea
Chest physiotherapy include postural drainage, percussion, and vibration to mobilize pulmonary secretions
Promotion of lung expansion can be achieved by... mobility, positioning, incentive spirometry, and chest tube insertion
Nasal cannulas and oxygen masks deliver oxygen therapy, which improve... tissue oxygenation
what actions benefit patients with chronic pulmonary diseases breathing exercises such as pursed-lip breathing and diaphragmatic breathing
why does hypoxia occur decreased circulating blood volume, which leads to decreased oxygen to muscles, causing fatigue, decreased activity tolerance, and a feeling of shortness of breath
Decreased effective contraction of left side of heart leads to back up of fluid in the lungs, increasing hydrostatic pressure and causing pulmonary edema, resulting in crackles in lung bases
what happens when the lung collapses? the thoracic space fills with air on each inspiration, and the atmospheric air irritates the parietal pleura, causing pain
an incentive spirometer is used to encourage deep breathing to inflate alveoli and open pores of Kohn
A nasal cannula delivers precise, high-flow rates of oxygen
atelectasis collapse of alveoli ta prevents normal exchange of O2 and CO2
patient with COPD lose... elastic recoil of the lungs and thorax
surfactant chemical produced in the lungs to maintain surface tension of alveoli and keep them from collapsing
hypoventilation occurs when alveolar ventilation is inadequate to meet O2 demand of the body or eliminate sufficient CO2
patients with COPD the administration of excessive oxygen results in... hypoventilation
S&S of hypoventilation mental status changes, dysrhythmias, cardiac arrest
hyperventilation ventilation which lungs remove CO2 faster than it is produced by cellular metabolism
myocardial ischemia results when supply of blood to myocardium from coronary arteries is insufficient to meet myocardial oxygen demands
impaired gas exchange r/t dec. lung expansion AMB... confusion, fatigue, restlessness, dyspnea, pallor, cyanosis, tachypnea
humidification process of adding water to gas. keeps air moist and loosens and mobilizes pulmonary secretions
incentive spirometry promotes deep breathing and prevents or treats atelectasis in the postoperative patient
pneumothorax collection of air in pleural space as a result of chest trauma
Created by: kamia2010