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Science Ch4


What four things do green plants need to make the food they require for growth? Carbon dioxide, water, oxygen and minerals.
List the minerals needed by plants in small amounts. Iron, boron, manganese, zinc, copper and chlorine.
What is nitrogen fixing? When nitrogen in the air changes to nitrogen compounds in the soil.
List 3 ways nitrogen can enter the soil. - Lightning causes oxygen to react with nitrogen and it comes down into the soil as rain. - The decomposition of dead plants and animals releases nitrogen into the ground. - When people plant crops it releases nitrogen into the ground.
What is chlorophyll? A green substance in plants that is needed for photosynthesis.
What materials do plants transport? Minerals, glucose and water.
Why do plant roots have hairs? It increases the area in contact with the soil which allows the water and minerals to enter the plant, through the roots quicker.
What is an ecosystem? A system where living and non-living things interact with each other and depend on each other.
What is an organism? One living thing
What is a population? A group of the same organisms.
What is a community? Many populations.
What is a biome? A group of ecosystems that have similar climates, animals and plants.
What does biotic mean? Living things.
What does abiotic mean? Non-living things.
Give 2 examples of biotic things. Tree Kangaroo
Give 2 examples of abiotic things. Soil Sun
Why is the Sun said to be the source of all life on Earth? It supplies the energy that plants use to make their food. All other animals depend on the food that plants make for their energy.
Explain the 'web of nature'. An invisible web that connects living and non-living things together.
What is an environment? The surroundings of living things.
What is a habitat? A place where organisms live.
What does a organisms need to be able to live in a habitat? Food Clean water Shelter Space Mate (for reproduction) Gases
List 7 coastal habitats. Rock pool Beach Ocean Ree Peninsula Cliff Peer
What does biodegradable mean? Can be broken down naturally.
What ties ecosystems together? Food.
Food can be thought of as packages of what? Nutrients and energy.
Define a producer. An organism that uses photosynthesis to make its food.
Define a consumer. An organism that relies on other organisms for food.
Give an example of each of the following: Producer Primary consumer Secondary consumer Omnivore Decomposer Grass Zebra Hyena Human Worm
List 5 ways that energy is used by organisms. Muscular movement Walking Carrying things Sleeping Talking
Why are there always more producers than consumers in an ecosystem? Because producers can utilize all the energy they make for themselves while consumers can only eat what producers they find.
What is the source of energy for most of the world's producers? The Sun.
How do consumers renew their energy and nutrient supplies? Consumers eat the plants or other animals.
What is the role of decomposers in an ecosystem? They recycle the nutrients in dead organisms.
Define symbiosis. A close relationship between 2 organisms of different species. It may benefit or harm one of the partners.
Define parasitism. A relationship between 2 organism where one organism benefits and the other is harmed.
Define mutualism. A relationship between 2 organism where both benefit.
Define commensalism. A relationship between 2 organism where one is unaffected and the other benefits.
List 4 reasons why plants are important. They are the producers that make the food for all the animals. They provide a home/shelter for all animals. Plants help make rain. Help prevent erosion.
Explain how plants affect the weather. Plants take water from the soil through their roots. The water is carried to the leaves, where some is used in photosynthesis. The rest of the water evaporates. Clouds are formed by water in the air. The water then comes down as rain.
What is erosion and how do plants reduce it? The movement of soil by wind and water. The plants roots hold the soil together and it becomes less easier to blow away.
What is pollination? Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the anther (male part) of one flowering plant to the stigma (female part) of another flowering plant.
What is in the ovary of plants? The ovary contains the egg/ova.
Where is the pollen produced in a flower? The pollen is produced in the anther.
What is the reproductive organ of plants? Flower
What is the purpose of petals being coloured? To attract insects.
What is anther? The male part of the flower that makes the pollen.
What is fertilisation? the joining together of the pollen and ova.
What is nectar? A sweet liquid produced by flowers to attract insects.
What is ova? The female sex cells of a flower.
What is ovary? The female part of a flower where the ova are found.
What is pollen? A powder made of pollen grains, the male sex cells of a plants.
What is Stigma? The female part of the flower that catches the pollen during pollination.
Why were the cane toads introduced? They were brought to eat and get rid of the cane beetles.
Where were the cane toads from? Hawaii
How many were brought in Australia? More then 100.
How many eggs do cane toads lay? 40 000
Why didn't the cane toads end up eating the cane beetles? Because the cane beetles lived in trees which is were the cane toads couldn't climb or reach.
How were the cane toads finally controlled? Pesticides.
How far did the cane toads spread? Throughout QLD, onto NSW, NT and WA.
Where can cane toads live? Anywhere with water and sun.
What makes cane toads such a good 'invasion machine'? They can live anywhere, eat anything, nothing eats them and they continuously reproduce.
Name 3 resources that animals compete for. Water supplies Food Mates
Name 2 environmental factors that kill many animals before they can reproduce. Predators Finding food and water
What is the greenhouse effect? It is an effect on the Earth's atmosphere trapping heat to keep the Earth's temperature stable.
What is the enhanced greenhouse effect? The increase of the Earths temperature caused by humans adding more carbon dioxide and gases to the air.
What human activities add more gases to the air? Cutting down trees, use of transport, burning fossil fuels and using electricity.
What is global warming? An increase in the Earth's temperature over many years.
How does cutting down trees increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the air? When we cut trees it releases carbon dioxide into the air and since trees are a source of food and a habitat for animals, they would have no food or shelter and many animals will die which also releases carbon into the air.
What is a predator? An amimal that hunts other animals for food.
What is prey? An animal that is hunted by other animals as food.
What is a receptacle in a flower? The base of the flower where all the parts are attached.
How does the amount of care provided by the parents affect the number of offspring? The more care provided by the parents the less offspring produced.
What is a second order consumer? The organism that eats the first order consumer.
List the 4 main types of decomposers and what they decompose. Worms- Animal and plant remains. Maggots & Flies- Dead animals Fungi- Dead material and organisms Bacteria- Dead or alive organisms.
What does competition mean? Animals competing for what they need.
Provide some examples of how some plants and animals adapt in the desert. death adders- come out at night and soak up the heat on the road. camels- have double row of eyelashes to keep out glare and grit. spinifex leaves- roll into tight cylnders during the day to reduce how much it is exposed to the sun.
What happens to the number of carbon atoms on Earth? They increase.
What is an example of commensalism? A tree frog living in a tree.
What is an example of mutualism? A sea anemone living on a hermit crab.
What is an example of parasitism? Tape worms living in a human.
How do animals get carbon atoms for respiration? Eat plants.
List 3 types of fossil fuels. Coal, oil and gas.
List 5 reasons why organisms might become endangered or extinct. -Predators. -Deforestation. -Diseases. -Pollution. -Hunting. -Climate change.
What is an introduced species? Species that have arrived from different countries.
What is respiration? The action of breathing.
Created by: beckarr99