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Test data for CFR-SF013-A

What does CFR stand for? Community First Responder.
What are the CFR's duties? - Attend appropriate emergency calls. - Provide necessary treatment. - Accurately document, record and inform the attending ambulance resource. - Provide continuing care. - Remain at scene until released by an ambulance resource.
What does SCAS stands for? South Central Ambulance Service
What does EOC mean? Emergency Operations Centre
What type of incidents a CFR can attend? - Collapse - Cardio-respiratory arrest - Respiratory emergencies - Cardiac emergencies - Neurological - Accidents (home, work etc) - Other medical emergencies
Incidents NOT attended... - Fire - Known violence - Mental health - Road traffic accidents - Maternity and gynaecological incidents - Prison, detention centre, police cell
What is CAD and what is it ised for? - Computer Aided Despatch - All phones receive pre-alert messages which are generated by CAD within the EOC.
What must you consider whilst responding to an emergency incident? - Fast Text to EOC - Adhere to all road traffic rules - Parking safety (ensuring ambulance access) - Patient report form (PRF) - Clothing/Shoes - No alcohol or drugs prior or during the shift - Patient consent - Safety/ Danger
What does PRF stand for? Patient report form
As a CFR you must make every effort to keep safe. Give 3 examples of how this can be achieved. 1. Introduce yourself (check for danger) 2. Follow/Do NOT lead (mental note of exits) 3. Claim you need equipment from car if situation requires it
As a CFR you may experience something that might affect you personally when attending an incident. Whom may you consider seeking support from? - Family/Friends - Scheme coordinator/member of ambulance service - Trained councilor - GP - CFR welfare officer
When you need to find out information from your patient, list three possible communication skills you can use. - Calm approach/Introduction - Respect personal space/Culture - Use non verbal techniques (smiling) - Give time to answer - Use open questions, e.g. So what you are saying is...
Give 3 examples of what must be present in both adults ad children for you to judge they are competent to make decisions. Patient must be: - Able to understand and retain information - Able to use the information - Able to communicate their answers
Who may legally be classed as having parental responsibility? - Mother always - Father if married to mother/acquired legal responsibility - Legal guardian - Residence order - Local authority - Emergency protection order
If at any time there are any issues regarding consent for assessment or treatment for any patient, regardless of age, who must you contact? EOC for advice and assistance
As a CFR we must respect patient confidentiality at all times and follow a few simple rules. Provide 3 people to whom it may not be appropriate to disclose confidential details to: - Relatives/Neighbours - Bystanders - Press
To whom may you safely handover patient information to? To the next person who will be directly responsible for the patient, e.g. ambulance crew
As a CFR you are a vital link in 'keeping it clean'. What simple rules must you adhere to? - Keep cuts and grazes covered at all times - Good personal hygiene - Nails short and clean - Wash hands afterwards - Clinical waste disposed of in the yellow bag - Do not re-use consumables
What does T.I.L.E help you remember? - Task (is it necessary?) - Individual (can I do it?) - Load (how heavy is it?) - Environment (do I have space?)
The skeleton has several key functions. What are they? - Support - Protection - Movement - Mineral storage - Blood cells
The skeleton is made up of how many bones? 206
What two causes of injury are likely to fracture a bone? - Direct force - Indirect force (e.g. during a fall land on outstretched arm -> fractures the shoulder joint)
The respiratory system has four principle functions. What are they? - Extract oxygen - Excrete water vapour, CO2, other waste gases - Maintain acidity of blood - Ventilation of lungs
What is the approximate percentage of oxygen within atmospheric air? ~21%
What factors may lead to an increase in our breathing rate? - Exercise - Asthma - Emphysema (COPD) - Bronchitis
What is COPD? COPD = Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - e.g. emphysema - chronic bronchitis
Breathing rates may increase due to: - Exercise - Fever - Shock - Medical (i.e. pneumonia, bronchitis etc)
Breathing rates may decrease due to: - Control problems i.e. CVA, brain injury - Mechanical problems, i.e. chest injury - Drug overdoses
What is CVA? Stroke (Cardio Vascular Accident)
How long does it take for "Brain Death" to occur and why? Brain Death will start to occur after just 3 minutes without oxygen
Give 3 potential indications for use of oxygen. - Cardiac / Respiratory arrest - Stroke - Chest pain - Trauma - Seizure (prolonged) - Toxic syndromes
What does insufficient oxygen lead to: Hypoxia
What is hypoxia? The condition which the level of oxygen in the body becomes too low to meet the cell's needs.
What are the most common causes of hypoxia? - Blood loss (severe) - Head injuries (chest) - Heart disease - Respiratory illness - Shock
How is oxygen administered? Delivery via: - A non-rebreather oxygen mask - BVM device
What does BVM stand for? Bag Valve Mask
What is a BVM and what is it used for? A Bag Valve Mask is a hand-held device used to provide positive pressure ventilation to a patient who is not breathing or who is breathing inadequately.
What is the recommended oxygen administration rate? Should always be the max of 15 litres per min to achieve the desired SPO2 level (recommended is in between 10-15 lt/min)
What is Pulse Oximetry? A simple non-invasive method of measuring the level of oxygen saturation of the patient's haemoglobin within arterial blood.
Pulse Oximetry: What is the range of a normal reading for oxygen saturation? 94% - 98%
Pulse Oximetry: What is the range of reading for evidence of hypoxia? 90% - 93%
Pulse Oximetry: What is the range which represents CRITICAL hypoxia? 85% or less
Pulse Oximetry: What is the range of SPO2 for a COPD patient? - Normally between 88% - 92% - Usually have oxygen administration warning cards
Is oxygen administration good for children? - Children are NOT excluded from SPO2 monitoring - ALL children with significant illness and/or injury must receive HIGH levels of supplementary oxygen (if possible)
Would oxygen administration be recommended to a known carbon monoxide poisoning patient? Known Carbon Monoxide poisoning will cause the results to be "artificially elevated", therefore SPO2 should NOT be used.
Give 3 reasons for inaccurate pulse oximetry SPO2 readings. - Dirty fingers - Bright light - Cold extremities/shivering - False nails/nail varnish - Carbon Monoxide poisoning - Irregular cardiac rhythms
What is the range in beats/min for a healthy heart? Approx 60 - 100 times per minute
What questions should be asked for a Primary Assessment History of a patient? (Always DRAB) - What's the main problem? - What are the symptoms? - When did it start? - How bad is the primary symptom? - Has anything changed? - Has this happened before? - Do they take medication? - Any known allergies - Consider Mechanism of
What information needs to be communicated when there is a patient handover? - Name - Age - Primary Concern - Brief history of incident - Signs & symptoms - Any treatment provided - Outcome of any treatment - Past medical history - Medication (if known) - Any know allergies
What needs to be considered when making a Primary Assessment? DRAB: - Danger - Response - Airway - Breathing
What is DRAB used for? DRAB is the Primary Assessment: - Danger (scene safety, PPE, gloves) - Response (Alert, Voice, Pain Unresponsive) - Airway (is it open? if not, open it) - Breathing (yes or no? for 10sec 2+ breaths)
What does AVPU help us remember? AVPU is used for assessing the response of a patient: - Alert (eyes open?) - Voice (their name or direct command) - Pain (tap shoulder, pinch earlobe) - Unresponsive
Name 3 causes which can cause unconsciousness. - Faint - Imbalance of heat - Shock - Head injury - Stroke - Heart Condition - Asphyxia - Poisoning (inc alcohol) - Epilepsy - Diabetes
What is the Recovery Position? A safe position for a patient which maintains an open airway. It allows body fluids to drain from the mouth, e.g. vomit
Which side should pregnant women be placed when on the recovery position? Pregnant women MUST only be put on their LEFT hand side
What age is safe to use pocket masks from? Pocket Masks may be used on patients of ANY age (filters are for single patient use only)
Basic Life Support: What is the recommended depth of a chest compression? 5-6cm (100-120 compressions / min)
What does CPR stand for? Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation
What is the min age limit for using a Bag Valve Mask (BVM)? The Bad Valve Mask (BVM) device cannot be used on any patients who are known to be under 16 years of age.
What is the min age limit for using a Oropharyngeal Airway? OP airways may only be used on patients age 16 years and above - Green : small - Orange : medium - Red : large
What does an Oropharyngeal (OP) Airway used for? Prevents the tongue from obstructing the airway
What does PPE stand for? Personal Protective Equipment, e.g. gloves etc
Name 3 causes for a Paediatric Cardiac Arrest. - Respiratory problems (60%) (e.g. broncholitis, asthma, pneumonia) - Sepsis (major infection) - Dehydration - Electrocution - Heart defect (congenital) - Hypovolaemia
Paediatric Basic Life Support (BLS): Which position should a small infant be placed to keep the airway open? For babies / small infants, the head should always remain in NEUTRAL alignment.
Paediatric Basic Life Support (BLS): Which position should a toddler/child be placed to keep the airway open? For toddlers / children, a small application of head tilt/chin lift should be applied to achieve a position known as "Sniffing The Morning Air"
What does AED stand for? Automated External Defibrillation
What age range should paediatric AED pads used? Paediatric AED (Automated External Defibrillation) pads may be used on any cardiac arrest patient between 1-8 years of age.
Describe the steps taken when treating a child with cardiac arrest. - Commence CPR with 5 rescue breaths - 30:2 for 1 minute prior to using the AED - Paediatric AED pads should be used for children between 1-8 years of age
What is Hyperventilation? A particularly high and shallow rate of breathing.
Name 3 causes of Hyperventilation. - Anger - Anxiety - Fear - Emotional
Name 3 symptoms which will indicate a Heart Attack. - Crushing central chest pain - Left arm, face or jaw pain - Shortness of breath - Sweating - Nausea/vomiting
Above what age can aspirin be administered safely? Aspirin may only be administered to patients over 16 years of age presenting with a cardiac sounding pain that is not exacerbated/eased by inspiration/expiration and who are not contra-indicated
Name 3 reasons that aspirin should not be administered to patients. - Never under 16 years of age - Known allergy - Haemophilia - Gastric/peptic ulcer
Describe what Anaphylaxis is and how can be recognised. - A severe over-reaction of the body's normal protective defences (histamine) - Massive drop in blood pressure - Generalised swelling
Name 3 causes of Anaphylaxis. - Insect stings/bites - Food, e.g. nuts - Drugs
What does FAST stand for? FAST is used to recognise symptoms of stroke: - Face - Arms - Speech - Test
Diabetic Emergencies: What is Hypoglycaemia? Low blood sugar level - Rapid, shallow breathing - Slow pulse - Pale, sweaty - Irritable, confused
Diabetic Emergencies: What is Hyperglycaemia? High blood sugar level - Slow, deep breathing - Rapid pulse - Flushed, dry skin - Tiredness, lethargy, drowsiness
When should paediatric AED pads be used? For patients under 8 years of age in need of defibrillation paediatric pads should be used if available (see exceptions)
State the exception for not using paediatric pads in patients under 8 years of age. Paediatric pads should be used for all children under 8 years of age. If not available, adult pads will be used on a child/infant (of any age) if they are in a shockable rhythm; defibrillation must still be undertaken immediately (08/06/12)
Created by: billyr