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Nervous Sys DelTech

Chapters 11 and 12 in A&P book for test DelTech Owens

QuestionAnswer
What are the functions of the nervous sytem? 1) Sensory input 2) integregation 3) motor output
The process of getting information from your surrounding environment is called __ __. sensory input
The interpretation of things you have felt, tasted, and touched with your sensory neurons into responses that the body recognizes is called __. integration
When your brain sends a message through neurons to effecter, muscle or gland cells, this is called __ __. motor output
Structurally, the nervous system consists of what two systems? central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
The central nervous system (CNS) consists of what 2 parts? brain and spinal cord
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of what? cranial and spinal nerves
Functionally, the nervous system consists of what 2 parts? somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system
The somatic nervous system deals with what parts of the body? skeletal and voluntary muscles
The autonomic nervous system deals with what parts of the body? involuntary muscles (like the heart)
The autonomic nervous system consists of what 2 systems? sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
The fight or flight response is part of what half of the autonomic nervous system? sympathetic, which deals with stress
The feed or breed response is part of what half of the autonomic nervous system? parasympathetic, which deals with low or no stress
If you're a nervous wreck, chiropracter's sometimes say that you're in __ overdrive. sympathetic overdrive
The supporting cells of the neurons are called __. neuroglia or glial cells
Another word for nerve cells is __. neurons
What does the word "glial" literally mean? glue
What kind of nerve cells can multiply, vary in size and shape, and are a common site of brain tumors? neuroglia (or glial cells)
Glial cells that are star shaped and that hold neurons close to blood vessels are called __. astrocytes
Glial cells that are smaller than astrocytes and that act as phagocytes for the brain and spinal cord are called __. microglia
Glial cells that resemble epithelial cells, are ciliated, and that move cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) across nerve tissues are called __. ependymal cells
Glial cells that hold neurons together, produce the myelin sheath of nerve fibers and spinal cord, are called __. oligodendroglia
Glial cells that produce the myelin sheath in the peripheral nervous system and neurolemma are called __. Schwann cells
The astrocytes of the peripheral nervous system are called __. satellite cells
Three characteristics of neurons include: 1) extreme longevity 2) amitotic (can't reproduce) 3) high metabollic rate
Neurons have a high metabollic rate, so they need lots of __ and will die quickly without it. O2/oxygen
The 3 types of neurons are: 1) afferent (sensory) 2) efferent (motor) 3) interneurons (central)
Neurons that transmit impulses TO the brain are called __. afferent (sensory)
Neurons that transmit impulses FROM the brain and spinal cord are called __. efferent (motor) Think Effect=Efferent
Neurons that connect impulses from sensory to motor are called __. interneurons (central)
Receptors for action potential are called __. dendrites
The body of the neuron is called __. soma or perikanyon
The brain of the neuron is its __. nucleus
A nerve fiber that carries impulses away from the soma (or cell body) is called an __. axon
The white lipid substance that works as an insulator and that speeds nerve signals is called a __ __. myelin sheath
The myelin sheath is made by __ __. Schwann cells
The membrane covering some myelin sheaths and responsible for regenerating axons and dendrites is called __. neurolemma
An action potential always travels from __ to __ to __. dendrites, soma, axon
The central nervous system has no __ so it can't regenerate. neurolemma
Exposed areas of axons between myelin are called __ _ __. nodes of Ranvie
The ends of axons are called __. telodendria
The synaptic knobs at the ends of telodendria contain __. neurotransmitters (NT)
A group of axons bundled together are called __. nerves
The tissue of cell bodies that have unmyelinated axons and dendrites are called __ __. grey matter
The tissue of cell bodies that have myelinated axons and dendrites are called __ __. white matter
When stimulus is received by a sensory receptor, this is step 1 on the __ arc. reflex arc
When an afferent neuron carries a signal received from a sensory receptor to the central nervous system, this is step 2 of the __ arc. reflex arc
The 3rd step in the reflex arc is when the __ processes the message from step 2. interneuron
In step 4 of the reflex arc, the efferent neuron prepares to carry the message from the interneuron to the __. effector
The 5th stage of the reflex arc occurs when the message is actually transmitted to the __. effector
Dendrites receive __ signals to the neuron's body. incoming
Axons carry signals __ from the neuron's body. away (A=Away)
Potassium (K+) ions inside the nerve cells have a __ charge. positive
Phosphate (PO4) ions in the nerve cell are __. negative
There are more phosphate ions in the nerve cell than potassium, so the cell's charge is __. negative
Sodium is an ion in the fluid surrounding a nerve cell. Sodium's charge is __. positive
Axons need to be protected because they're so __. long
__ cells are like a toilet paper roll as they wrap around the axon. Schwann
There are __ in the myeline sheath and Schwann cells. spaces
The spaces in the myeline sheath and Schwann cells are called the nodes of __. Ranvier
__ are basically grey in color. axons
Neurotransmitters can be found in __ on the tip of the axon. vesicles
The vesicles, or "bubbles," on the tip of an axon __ when the nerve dendrites are stimulated. pop
The __ in the nerve vesicles crosses the bridge, or synapse, between neurons when the vesicles pop. neurotransmitter
The static membrane potential of quiescent cells is called the __ __. resting potential
The primary positive ion involved when nerves fire is __. sodium
When a neuron is stimulated, sodium __ will open and sodium will rush into the axon. gates
Sodium that enters the axon through the sodium gate will change the charge of the cell from __ to positive. negative
The neuron's membrane __ the sodium out so the neuron can fire again instantly. pumps
The tip of an axon has __ in it. calcium
When a neuron fires, the calcium causes the vesicles on the tip of the axon to pop and release their contents, which are __. neurotransmitters
Calcium is __ to the firing of nerves. Without it, neurotransmitters can't be released. crucial
A resting neuron, which is positive on the inside and negative on the outside, has a __ __. polarized membrane
When a resting neuron - which is polarized - is stimulated to fire its neurotransmitter, it __. depolarizes
A wave of __ spreads across the neuron when it fires. depolarization
After a neuron depolarizes, it __ immediately so it can fire again. repolarizes
A connection between a neuron and the next cell is called a __. synapse
A synapse is not called a space between neurons. It is a __, __, or connection. cleft, junction
When a neuron fires and the vesicles on the tip of the axon pop, the neurotransmitters inside the vesicles __ to the next neuron. attach
Sometimes neurotransmitters __, causing seizures. leak
After a neuron has fired, it secretes an enzyme called __ to dissolve the neurotransmitter that has attached to the next neuron. achase
What do you call a neuron before it fires? presynaptic
What do you call a neuron after it fires? postsynaptic
The name of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase can be shortened to __. achase, or Ach
Five neurotransmitters used in the human body include: 1) acetylcholine 2) norepinephrine 3) dopamine 4)GABA 5) serotonin
Which neurotransmitter is the most abundant? acetylcholine
Which neurotransmitters promote a sense of well being? norepinephrine and serotonin
Norepinephrine has 2 removal agents or enzymes: they are called? MAO and COMT
Acetylcholine is used to stimulate __ and also resides in the brain. muscles (which is why it's the most abundant)
__ is used in the brain and used to coordinate signals. dopamine
Dopamine is concentrated in the __ ganglia. basal
Dopamine shortage can cause __. Parkinson's
Astrocytes, part of the brain/blood barrier, will not allow __ to pass into the brain directly. dopamine
Dopamine if both excitatory and __. inhibitory
GABA stands for __ __ __ __. gamma amino banzoic acid
Is GABA inhibitory or excitatory? inhibitory
GABA stops __ from moving all the time. muscles
Which neurotransmitter was the first to be discovered? acetylcholine
Acetylcholine is released at all __ __ and by all neurons that stimulate skeletal muscles. muscular junctions
What's an acid that breaks down acetylcholine (something other than AChe)? acetic acid (vinegar)
AChe, acetic acid, and __ are recycled back into the presympatic nob to make more acetylcholine. choline
The neurotransmitter norepinephrine is removed by __ __. monoamine oxidase (MAO)
Adrenaline is another word for __. epinephrine
The body's natural pain relievers are called __. They also give us an exercise high. endorphines
This neurotransmitter makes women forget the pain of child birth ... so we're told. enkephalin
The effects of the neurotransmitter GABBA are increased by __. alcohol
Name the neurotransmitter that blacks ACh on respiratory muscles and that is used to induce respiratory paralysis during surgery. succinyl choline chloride
What is the first definable organ in an embryo? brain and spinal cord
What are the 2 kinds of white nerve matter? tracts and nerves
Bundles of fibers (axons and dendrites) inside the central nervous system are called? tracts - also called neural tracts
Bundles of fibers outside the CNS are called? nerves
What are the 2 kinds of grey nerve matter? nuclei and ganglia
The reflex centers found inside the gray matter of the central nervous system are called what? nuclei
The clusters of grey matter outside the CNS are called what? glanglia
The ventricles (hollow spaces) inside the brain are filled with what? cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF
Name the 6 major divisions of the brain. 1) medulla oblongota 2) pons 3) midbrain 4) cerebellum 5) diencephelon 6) cerebrum
The most inferior part of the brain stem that resides just inside the foramen magnum is called what? medulla
What are some of the functions the medulla controls? 1) cardiac 2) vasomotor/blood pressure 3) reflex centers
The criss-cross of nerves running from the left side of the body to the right side, and vice versa, is called the __ of tracts. decussation of tracts
Pons literally means _. bridge
The pons vertically connects the __ to the __. midbrain to the medulla
The pons controls __. respiration
The pons horizontally connects itself to the __. cerebellum
The midbrain connects the __ to the __. forebrain to the hindbrain
The midbrain is mostly __ matter. (grey or white) white
The midbrain controls 3 important reflexes. What are they? 1) pupil reflex 2) auditory reflex 3) postural reflex
Cerebellum literally means what? little brain
True or false: the cerebellum is the largest part of the human brain. False. It's the 2nd largest part.
The cerebellum coordinates __ activity. muscular
The cerebellum helps us to maintain __. balance or equilibrium
The cerebellum contains the __ vitae, which relays impulses between the cerebellum and other parts of the brain. arbor vitae
The __ contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, and the 3rd ventricle. diencephalon
The white matter of the __ is the sorting dept for impulses, like a switchboard operator. thalamus
The grey matter of the thalamus is responsible for __ sensations and plays a role in __. crude, emotions
The __ forms the floor of the 3rd ventricle and is directly connected to the pituitary gland. hypothalamus
The hypothalamus plays a role in emotions like __ and sexual behavior. rage
The middle portion of the hypothalamus becomes, or gives rise to, the __. infundibulum
The pineal gland produces __. melatonin
The pineal gland regulates our biological __. clock
The __ __ is where the optic nerves cross from left to right an vice versa into the brain. optic chiasma
The largest, most prominent part of the brain is called the __. cerebrum
The cerebrum makes us __ than other animal. smarter
The cerebrum is divided into 2 halves by the __ fissure. longitudinal fissure
The 2 halves of the cerebrum are joined by the __ __. corpus collosum
The 4 lobes of the cerebrum are called what? 1) frontal 2) occipital 3) parietal 4) temporal
The frontal lobe manages what brain functions? thought, emotions, special senses
The occipital lobe manages what brain function? sight
The parietal lobe manages what brain function? touch
The temporal lobe manages what brain functions? hearing and smell
All 4 lobes in the brain are divided by __. fissures
The __ fissure separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe. central
The __ fissure separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum. transverse
The __ is the outer layer of grey matter. cerebral cortex
Gyri are rises in the brain, while __ are depressions in the brain. sulcus
The 3 parts of the cerebrum are? 1) cerebral cortex 2) white matter 3) basal ganglia
The __ part of the cerebrum stabilizes and steadies out movements. basal ganglia
What are the 3 kinds of fiber in the cerebrum? 1) commisural 2) association 3) projection
The commisural part of the cerebrum carries impulses from __ and __ hemisphere. left and right
The __ fibers of the cerebrum carry messages within a single brain hemisphere. association
The __ fibers of the cerebrum carry messages away from the cortex to other parts of the brain. projection
The corpus collosum is a white __ tract. commisural
What is the name, classification, and function of cranial nerve I? Olfactory, Sensory, Smell
What is the name, classification, and function of cranial nerve II? Optic, Sensory, Vision
What is the name, classification, and function of cranial nerve III? Oculomotor, Motor, Eye Movement
What is the name, classification, and function of cranial nerve IV? Trochlea, Motor, Eye Movement
What is the name, classification, and function of cranial nerve V? Trigeminal, Both, Swallowing and facial feeling
What is the name, classification, and function of cranial nerve VI? Abducens, Motor, Eye Movement
What is the name, classification, and function of cranial nerve VII? Facial, Both, Facial movement and taste
What is the name, classification, and function of cranial nerve VIII? Vestibular (auditory), Sensory, Hearing and balance
What is the name, classification, and function of cranial nerve IX? Glossopharyngeal, Both, Tongue and pharynx
What is the name, classification, and function of cranial nerve X? Vagus, Both, Heart and blood vessels and viscera
What is the name, classification, and function of cranial nerve XI? Accessory (spinal), Motor, Neck and shoulder muscles
What is the name, classification, and function of cranial nerve XII? Hypoglossal, Motor, tongue muscles
Mnemonic for remembering the cranial nerves? Oh oh oh to touch and feel a girl's vagina ah heaven I didn't make that up.
What 2 things protect the central nervous system? Bones and meninges
The 3 layers and spaces of the meninges in order (from outside layer to inside layer)? 1. Bone (skull) 2. dura mater 3. subdural space 4. arachnoid 5. subarachnoid 6. pia mater 7. brain and spinal cord
What layer anchors the brain to the skull, has sensory nerves, goes all the way around the brain and down the spine, and literally means "tough mother?" dura mater
Which membrane is delicate and web-like, serves as the middle layer of the meninges, and literally means "spider?" arachnoid
Which layer is attached to the brain and spinal cord, lines the ventricles, contains special capillaries called the choroid plexus which make cerebrospinal fluid, and literally means "soft mother?" pia mater
The subdural space in the skull is between what two layers of the meninges? dura mater and the arachnoid
The sub arachnoid space is between what two layers of the meninges? arachnoid and pia
Cerebrospinal fluid is only found in __ __ space, around the brain, spinal cord, and the ventricles. sub arachnoid
The spinal cord ends at which vertebra? L3
The meninges ends at which spinal cord? L4 or L5
A watery, sometimes colorless and sometimes yellowish fluid used by the nervous system is called? cerebrospinal fluid
The choroid plexus makes cerebrospinal fluid out of __ by active transport and filtration. blood
Cerebrospinal fluid can be found in what four locations? 1. Around cord in subarachnoid space 2. inside central canal of spinal cord 3. inside 4 ventricles 4. surround brain also in subarachnoid space
CSF reenters the blood stream by veins in the brain called __ __. arachnoid villi
A selective mechanism that prevents certain substances from entering the brain to protect against infections is called the __ __ __. blood brain barrier
How many pairs of nerves are there in the spinal nerves? 31
The 31 pairs of nerves in the spine consist of __ and __ nerves. motor and sensory
The dorsal (posterior) nerves that extend from the spine are always __ nerves. sensory
The ventral (anterior) nerves that extend from the spine are always __ nerves. motor
As each spinal nerve emerges from the between the vertebra, it divides into __ branches. 2
The two branches of spinal nerves that emerge from the vertebra are called __ and __. RAMUS one and RAMUS two.
An extensive network of nerves is called a __. plexus
Nerves that exit between the C1 and C4 vertebra are part of the __ plexus. cervical
The cervical plexus of nerves supplies what parts of the body? skin, muscles of back of head, neck and shoulders, phrenic nerve.
The phrenic nerve controls the __ and therefore controls __. diaphragm and therefore controls breathing
The __ plexus supplies the neck, shoulders, arm. brachial plexus
The 3 main brachial nerves are? 1. radial 2. median 3. ulnar
The thoracic (not a plexus) control the __ muscles. intercostal
The __ plexus exits the back bone at the L1 - L5 vertebra. lumbosacral
The femoral and sacral nerves are part of the __ plexus. lumbosacral
The cranial nerves have __ pairs. 12
The __ nervous system supplies involuntary muscles and glands. autonomic
The ANS is strictly a __ __ composed entirely of motor neurons. directive system
The ANS uses a pathway that involves two motor neurons in a series. They are? 1st pre ganglionic neuron, 2nd post ganglionic neuron
The sympathetic nervous system is fight or __ while the parasympathetic nervous system is feed or __. flight, breed
The sympathetic nervous system is fear, anger, __ while the parasympathetic nervous system is more __. pain, relaxed
The sympathetic nervous system emerges from the __ __ areas. thoracic lumbar
The parasympathetic nervous system emerges from the __ and __ areas. cranio and sacral
The sympathetic nervous system uses 2 neurotransmitters, called: Ach, norepinephrine
The parasympathetic nervous system uses only 1 neurotransmitter, called: Ach
The parasympathetic nervous system controls and dominates __. digestion
The sympathetic nervous system controls __ and blood distribution. circulation
Another mneumonic for cranial nerves: On Old Olympus Towering Tops, A Finn And German Viewed Some Hops
A depression in the brain is called a __. sulci
A ridge on the brain is called a __. gyrus
A single section of skin innervated by a single spinal nerve is called a __. dermatome
A segment of muscles innervated by a spinal nerve is called a __. myotome
The sympathetic nervous system causes heart rate and force of blood flow to __. increase
The sympathetic nervous system causes blood flow to skeletal muscles to __. dilate
The sympathetic nervous system causes bronchial passages in the lungs to __. dilate
The sympathetic nervous system causes movement in the digestive tract to __. decrease
The sympathetic nervous system causes the sphincter to __. constrict
The sympathetic nervous system causes the urinary bladder to __. relax
The sympathetic nervous system causes the pupil of the eye to __. expand
The sympathetic nervous system causes secretion from sweat glands to __. increase
The sympathetic nervous system causes secretion from salivary glands to __. decrease
The parasympathetic nervous system causes the heart rate to __. decrease
The parasympathetic nervous system has __ affect on blood vessels. no
The parasympathetic nervous system causes bronchial passages in the lungs to __. constrict
The parasympathetic nervous system causes movement in the digestive tract to __. decrease
The parasympathetic nervous system causes the sphincter to __. relax
The parasympathetic nervous system causes the urinary bladder to __. contract
The parasympathetic nervous system causes the pupil of the eye to __. constrict
The parasympathetic nervous system causes secretion from the sweat glands to __. decrease
The parasympathetic nervous system causes secretion from the salivary glands to __. increase
Created by: IsaacJ