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Peds Cancer


Liquid tumor vs. solid tumor Purely way oncologists differentiate types of CA
Leukemia definition Unrestricted proliferation of immature WBCs in blood-forming tissues of body.
Leukemia has __ leukocyte count, __ WBC count, __ immature blast cell %, and __ healthy marrow Low leukocyte, >50,000 WBC, 60-100% immature blast, 5% healthy marrow
Main consequences of leukemia 1) anemia from decreased erythrocytes, 2) infxn from neutropenia, 3) bleeding from decreased platelet production
Leukemia infilatration of spleen, liver, and lymph nodes causes Tissue fibrosis
Infiltratino of CNS from leukemia... Increased ICP
Risk factors of leukemia Most common CA, ALL most common form (peak 2-6 yrs, increased incidence in white boys), trisomy 21 20x risk
Leukemia early s/sx Low-grade fever, pallor, increased bruising/petechiae, listlessnes, enlarged liver/lymph/joints, abdm/leg/jt pain, constipation, HA, vomiting, anorexia, unsteady gait
Leukemia late s/sx Pain, hematuria, ulcerations in mouth, enlarged kidneys/testicles, increased ICP signs
Most definitive Dx test for leukemia Bone marrow aspiration/biopsy. Show prolific amnts immature blast cells and protein markers.
Bone marrow aspirate RN actions Topical anesthetic 45min-1hr before procedure, unconscious sedation, specimen from post/ant iliac crest or tibia. Post-proced: apply pressure to site 5-10 min, VS freq, pressure drsg, monitor bleed/infxn for 24h
Leukemia CSF analysis Lumbar puncture, determine increased ICP. Sedation, topical/local anesthetic, pressure applied after needle removed, monitor for hematoma/infxn
Leukemia sonograms Detect liver/spleen infiltration, enlargement, fibrosis
Liver and kidney studies indication Results used as baseline functioning before chemo
Lymphoma definition Masses of immune cells, originates in lymphoid system
Lymphoma s/sx Fatigue, fluctuation in wt, enlarged/irregular lymph nodes
Primary therapy for lymphoma Chemo and irradiation.
60% of lymphomas are Non-Hodgkins
Liquid tumor potential outcomes Chemo SE: alopecia, nausea, constipation, fatigue. Immune compromised, opportunistic infxn, mucositis, anemia, hemorrhage, may lead to bone marrow transplant
Osteosarcoma usu occurs in ____, most often ___. Metaphysis of long bones; most often in femur.
Osteosarcoma Tx Salvage techniques more common than amputation. Use donor bone c. instrumentation
Ewing's sarcoma occurs in ____ Shafts of long bones and trunk bones.
Tx of Ewing's sarcoma includes Surgical biopsy, intensive radiation, therapy to tumor site, chemo, but NOT amuputation!
Wilm's tumor definition Kidney tumor. Peak 3-4 yrs of age. Associated with several cogenital malformation syndromes.
Wilm's tumor s/sx Painless swelling or mass within abdm which is firm, non-tender, confined to one side, deep within flank. Occasional HTN, increased abdm circum, UTI sx in toddlers
Wilm's tumor Tx Chemo before tumor removal
Wilm's tumor comcplications Same as other CA, risk for tumor lysis syndrome, renal loss, increased risk of renal failure, sterility
Survival rates for pts. with Wilm's tumor are one of the ____ Highest
Brain tumor show neuro changes and increased ____ ICP sx
Brain tumor Tx Chemo, radiation, removal depending on location
Brain tumors often ____ Reoccur
Brain tumor complications Risks of chemo, sterility, permanent neurological deficit
Neuroblastoma definition Extracranial solid tumor. Can occur in any tissue. Originate from embryonic neural crest. Majority from adrenal gland or retroperiton sympath chain. Primary site: abdm
Neuroblastoma s/sx Firm, nontender irregular mass in abdm that crosses midline.
Neuroblastoma is usually found _____ After metastasis. Discovered in fetal US
Neuroblastomas seen more often in Infants and toddlers
Hepatoblastoma definition. Found in __ Liver mass; infants
_____ is first choice, then __ for heptaoblastoma Surgery; then chemo
Rhabdomyosarcoma definition Tumor in connective tissue. Most common head or neck, orbit of eye.
Rhabdomyosarcoma Tx Surgical biopsy, local radiation therapy, chemo
Rhabdomyosarcoma found more often in White children < 5 y.o.
Retinoblastoma defintion Tumor on retina. White glow eye found in family pictures
Retinoblastoma Tx Radiation to reduce size and excision, chemo
Complication of retinoblastoma Possible enucleation (removal of eye)
Created by: choel