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brainstem the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions
medulla the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
reticular formation a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
thalamus the brain's sensory switchboard located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas of the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
cerebellum the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance
limbic system doughnut-shaped neural system (including hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives
amygdala two lima bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion
hypothalamus a neural structure below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature) helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward
cerebral cortex the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center
glial cells cells in the nervous system that support, nourish and protect neurons
frontal lobes portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments
parietal lobes portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position
occipital lobes portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas that receive information from the visual fields
temporal lobes portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear
motor cortex an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
association areas areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking and speaking.
aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to the Wernicke's area( impairing understanding)
broca's area controls language expression-- an area, usually in the left frontal lobe, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
plasticity the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage of by building new pathways based on experience
neurogenesis the formation of new neurons
corpus callosum large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
split brain condition resulting from sugary that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them
Created by: mes95
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