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ConsBeh Quiz 5

chapter 14

Psychographics combine what 3 variables? 1. Values 2. Personality 3. Lifestyle
What is one of the most widely known psychographic tool? Values and Life Style Survey (VALS)
VALS is used for what 2 things? 1. identify potential target markets 2. understand how to communicate with consumers
VALS includes only items that relate to __________. consumer behavior
What are the 4 VALS types? 1. Innovators 2. Thinkers 3. Believers 4. Achievers
What are innovators? individuals that take charge and are sophisticated and curious
What is the primary motivation of innovators? achievement
What are thinkers? individuals that are reflective, informed and content
What is the primary motivation of thinkers? ideals
What are believers? individuals that are literal, loyal and moralistic
What is the primary motivation of believers? ideals
What are achievers? individuals that are goal-oriented, brand-conscious and conventional
What is the primary motivation of achievers? achievement
Which 2 VALS types are motivated by achievement? Innovators and Achievers
Which 2 VALS types are motivated by ideals? Thinkers and Believers
What are the 4 ways to create value for targeted customers? Segmentation, Targeting, Differentiation and Positioning
What is Segmentation? dividing the whole market into smaller segments that might require separate marketing strategies
What is Targeting? selecting the segment(s) to enter
What is Differentiation? differentiating the market offering to create superior customer value
What is Positioning? positioning the market offering in the minds of target customers
__________ and __________ select which customers to serve. Segmentation ; Targeting
__________ and __________ decide on a value proposition. Differentiation ; Positioning
What are values? enduring beliefs that a given behavior or outcome is good
Values serve as standards for what? guiding behavior across situations and over time
True/False: We are usually consciously aware of values. False - We are sometimes NOT consciously aware of values.
Values are learnt by __________. socialization
What is the value system? our total set of values
The value system is usually in place by what age? 10
What are the 4 specific values? 1. Global 2. Terminal 3. Instrumental 4. Domain-Specific
What are global values? highly enduring, strongly held and abstract values that apply in many situations
Global values represent the __________ of an individual's value system. core
What are terminal values? highly desired end states
Social recognition and pleasure are which values? terminal values
Ambition and cheerfulness are which values? instrumental values
What are instrumental values? values needed to achieve the desired end state
What are domain-specific values? values that may be relevant only in particular areas of activity
Achievement of one or more domain-specific values might be instrumental in achieving one or more __________ values. global
What are 10 domain-specific values that characterize Western culture? 1. Materialism 2. Home 3. Work and Play 4. Individualism 5. Family and Children 6. Health 7. Hedonism 8. Youth 9. Environment 10. Technology
Explain materialism as a domain-specific value that characterizes Western culture. placing importance on money and material goods that make life more enjoyable
What is the general feature of materialism? "the good life"
Explain home as a domain-specific value that characterizes Western culture. stimulates interest in products that enable people to spend more time in their own home
What is the general feature of home? making the product attractive and comfortable
Explain work and play as a domain-specific value that characterizes Western culture. stimulates interest in products that increase productivity and enhances leisure-time activities
What is the general feature of work and play? valuing both the need to work and to enjoy leisure time
Explain individualism
What is the general feature of individualism? being one's self
Explain Family and Children as a domain-specific value that characterizes Western culture. stimulates purchase of products that target family and children
What is the general feature of family and children? ensure family and children welfare
Explain Health as a domain-specific value that characterizes Western culture. stimulates acceptance of food products, activities and equipment perceived to maintain or increase physical fitness
What is the general feature of health? caring about one's body, including the desire to be physically fit and healthy
Explain Hedonism as a domain-specific value that characterizes Western culture. stimulates interest in products that provide pleasure and makes one feel good
What is the general feature of hedonism? pleasure seeking
Explain Youth as a domain-specific value that characterizes Western culture. stimulates the acceptance of products that provide the illusion of maintaining youth
What is the general feature of youth? a state of mind that stresses being young at heart
Explain Environment as a domain-specific value that characterizes Western culture. stimulates patronage of products that help the environment, prevent pollution and conserve natural resources
What is the general feature of environment? conservation of the environment and natural resources
Explain Technology as a domain-specific value that characterizes Western culture. stimulates acceptance of technology related products, especially those that work automatically (and thus are easier to use properly)
What is the general feature of technology? admiration of things employing technology and the belief that it improves the quality of life and makes life easier
How do values differ cross-culturally across groups of consumers? people in different cultures are exposed to different cultural experiences
What are the 4 influences on values? 1. Culture 2. Ethnic Identification 3. Social Class 4. Age
What is culture? a set of traditions, norms and beliefs that are held true by people living in a particular society
According to Hofstede, culture varies along what 4 dimensions? Individuals/Collectivism, Uncertainty Avoidance, Masculinity/Femininity and Power Distance
What is individualism? preference for a loosely-knit social framework in which individuals primarily take care of themselves and their immediate family only
What is collectivism? preference for a tightly-knit social framework in which individuals take care of relatives in their extended family as well as members in their particular in-group
What is uncertainty avoidance? the degree to which the members of society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty/ambiguity
Uncertainty avoidance explains how a society deals with the fact that the __________ can never be known. future
What is masculinity? stresses masculine values such as being competitive, risk-taking and independent
What is femininity? stresses feminine values such as being caring, risk-averse and interdependent
What is power distance? whether and how much inequality is present in society
How does ethnic identification influence values? ethnic groups within a larger culture can have values that differ from those in other ethnic subcultures
How does social class influence values? different social classes hold specific values
How does age influence values? members of a generation often share similar values that differ from those of other generations
What is the least obtrusive way to measure values? make inferences based on a culture's milieu
What is the means-end chain analysis? technique showing that values are linked to product attributes
Using information gained from the means-end chain analysis, researches do what? work backward to uncover the values that drive consumer decisions
Working backwards to uncover the values that drive consumer decisions provides the means to what? a desired end state (terminal value)
What is an example of means-end chain analysis? attribute: fewer calories why is this important (benefit)? because I don't want to gain weight why not (instrumental value)? i want to be healthy why (terminal value)? to feel good about myself
Marketers can directly assess values by using __________. value questionnaires
What are the 2 types of questionnaires? Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) and List of Values (LOV)
What is the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS)? a self-administered survey that measures terminal values (personal goals) and instrumental values (ways of reaching personal goals)
What is the List of Values (LOV)? a value measurement survey that identifies customers' 2 most important values
Where are these 2 most important values taken from? a nine-value list based on the terminal values of the RVS
What are the 4 marketing implications of values 1. use values to determine consumption patterns 2. use values to segment markets 3. use values to develop new product ideas 4. use values to develop ad strategy
What are consumption patterns? consumers' preferences
What 2 product types are segmented? luxury products and functional products
The more compatible the message, the more likely that what? consumers are going to be involved and find it relevant
What is personality? distinctive and enduring patterns of thought, emotions and behaviors that characterize each individual's adaptation to the situations of their life
Individual personality reflects the way people __________. act
What are the 3 natures of personality? 1. reflects individual differences 2. consistent and enduring 3. can change
What are the 3 research approaches to personality? 1. Freudian Theory 2. Social-Psychological Theory 3. Trait Theory
What are the 3 aspects of Freudian theory? 1. Id 2. Superego 3. Ego
What is id? warehouse of primitive or instinctual needs for which individual seeks immediate satisfaction
What is superego? individual's internal expression of society's moral and ethical codes of conduct
What is ego? individual's monitor that balances the demands of the id and the superego
True/False: Individuals are consciously aware of their true reasons for what they are buying. False - Individuals are UNCONSCIOUSLY UNAWARE of their reasons for what they are buying.
Consumption is a(n) __________ of the individual. extension
What is social-psychological theory? theory that focuses on the social relationship that form personalities
What are the 3 types of predominant mode of response? 1. Compliant 2. Aggressive 3. Detached
Explain compliant individuals. one who desires to be loved, wanted and appreciated by others
Compliant individuals move __________ other people. towards
Explain aggressive individuals. one who competes with others, desires to excel and to win admiration
Aggressive individuals move __________ other people. against
Explain detached individuals. one who desires independence, self-sufficiency and freedom from obligations
Detached individuals move __________ other people. away from
What is trait theory? theory that proposes that personality is composed of characteristics that describe and differentiate individuals
Trait theory focuses on the __________ measurement of personality traits. quantitative
What are the 5 specific traits that are relevant to consumer behavior? 1. Innovativeness 2. Materialism 3. Need for Cognition 4. Frugality 5. Ethnocentrism
Personality is linked to what 2 things? 1. how consumers make their choices 2. consumption of a broad product category
True/False: Personality is linked to the consumption of a specific brand category. False - Personality is linked to the consumption of a BROAD PRODUCT category.
What are the 9 types of personality characteristics that are more related to consumer behavior than others? 1. Optimal stimulation level 2. Dogmatism 3. Need for uniqueness 4. Creativity 5. Susceptibility to influence 6. Frugality 7. Self-monitoring 8. National character 9. Need for cognition
What is the optimal stimulation level? people's preferred level of stimulation (arousal)
What is usually the preferred level of stimulation? moderate
What id dogmatism? tendency to be resistant to change or new/unfamiliar ideas
Explain consumers that are low in dogmatism. open-minded: more likely to prefer innovative products to established/traditional alternatives
Explain consumers that are high in dogmatism. closed-minded: tend to be resistant to new products, promotions and ads
Highly dogmatic consumers tend to be more receptive to what kind of ads? ads for new products that contain an appeal from an authoritative figure
What is the need for uniqueness? desire for novelty through the purchase, use and disposal of products
What is creativity? departure from conventional consumption practice in a novel and functional way
What is the susceptibility to influence? consumers' desire to enhance their image as observed by others and a willingness to be influenced by others
What is frugality? the degree to which consumers take a disciplined approach to ST acquisitions are are resourceful in using products to achieve LT goals
What is self-monitoring? the degree to which individuals look to others for cues on how to behave
What is national character? the broadly generalized personality of a country
What is the need for cognition? a person's craving for the enjoyment of thinking
Consumers that have a high NFC are more likely to respond to what kind of ads? ads rich in product-related information
Consumers that have a low NFC are more likely to respond to what aspect of ads? the background or peripheral aspects of an ad
What are lifestyles? people's patterns of behavior
Lifestyles relate closely to __________ and __________. values ; personality
Values and personality represent __________ states. internal
Lifestyle is represented by what 3 things? 1. Activities 2. Interests 3. Opinions
What are the 3 marketing implications of lifestyles? 1. Market segmentation 2. Communications 3. New product ideas
Explain how marketers can use market segmentation when studying lifestyles. use lifestyles to identify consumer segments for various offerings
What are the 3 tools in using communication as a marketing implication for lifestyles? 1. ad messages and promotions 2. specific media used by consumers 3. media usage patterns
How do marketers develop new product ideas? by uncovering unfulfilled needs for certain lifestyle segments
Created by: fletcheral