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Test6_Chapter 50

Assessment of Immune Function_Chapter 50

QuestionAnswer
Agglutination: clumping effect occurring when an antibody acts as a cross-link between two antigens
Antibody: a protein substance developed by the body in response to and interacting with a specific antigen
Antigen: substance that induces the production of antibodies antigenic determinant:
Apoptosis: programmed cell death that results from the digestion of deoxyribonucleic acid by endonucleases
B cells: cells that are important for producing a humoral immune response cellular immune response:
Complement: series of enzymatic proteins in the serum that, when activated, destroy bacteria and other cells
Cytokines: generic term for nonantibody proteins that act as intercellular mediators, as in the generation of immune response
Cytotoxic T cells: lymphocytes that lyse cells infected with virus; also play a role in graft rejection
Epitope: any component of an antigen molecule that functions as an antigenetic determinant by permitting the attachment of certain antibodies
Genetic engineering: emerging technology designed to enable replacement of missing or defective genes helper T cells:
Humoral immune response: the immune system’s second line of defense; often termed the antibody response
Immune response: the coordinated response of the components of the immune system to a foreign agent or organism
Immune system: the collection of organs, cells, tissues, and molecules that mediate the immune response
Immunity: the body’s specific protective response to a foreign agent or organism; resistance to disease, specifically infectious diseases
Immunopathology: study of diseases resulting in dysfunctions within the immune system
Immunoregulation: complex system of checks and balances that regulates or controls immune responses
Interferon’s: proteins formed when cells are exposed to viral or foreign agents; capable of activating other components of the immune system
lymphocytes: substances released by sensitized lymphocytes when they come in contact with specific antigens
Memory cells: cells that are responsible for recognizing antigens from previous exposure and mounting an immune response
Natural killer (NK) cells: lymphocytes that defend against microorganisms and malignant cells
Null lymphocytes: lymphocytes that destroy antigens already coated with the antibody
Opsonization: the coating of antigen–antibody molecules with a sticky substance to facilitate phagocytosis
Phagocytic cells: cells that engulf, ingest, and destroy foreign bodies or toxins
Phagocytic immune response: the immune system’s first line of defense, involving white blood cells that have the ability to ingest foreign particles
Stem cells: precursors of all blood cells; reside primarily in bone marrow
Suppressor T cells: lymphocytes that decrease B-cell activity to a level at which the immune system is compatible with life
T cells: cells that are important for producing a cellular immune response
Created by: jhrobins99