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Chapter 8:Muscules

Muscular systems

What is myofibril? extending along the entire length of the muscle fiber are cylindrical structures
What is the causes of Ducheyenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy? a single gene disorders caused by a malfunctioning gene on the X chromosome commonly in males
What is a cramp and the cause from it? a parinful involuntary contraction. Cause- overuse of a muscle, dehydration, muscle strain or simply holding a position too long.
What are the symptoms and causes of Fibromyalgia? causes- by lack of deep sleep. symptoms- pain, fatigue, fibrofog-mental haziness, headaches, nervousness, numbness, dizziness, and intestinal disturbance
What is a shin splint and the cause? a pain in the shins most in the front lower legs. causes- by exerting excessive pressure on the lower leg muscles and excessive impact on the muscles
What are the symptoms for muscle strain? swelling, bruising or redness, or open cuts due to injury, pain at rest, weakness of the muscle or tendons, and inability to use muscle at all
What is tendon inflammation and the locations? put under too much strain. common locations-calf, wrist, lower leg, and heel bone
What would myasthenia gravis affects? any voluntary muscle, muscles that control eye and eyelid movements, facial expressions, and swallowing are most frequently affected
What are the events that happen in contraction and relaxation in a skeletal muscle fiber? 1. nerve impulse arrives at axon terminal of motor neuron 2. ACh diffuses across synaptic cleft, binds to its receptor 3. AChE in synaptic cleft destroys ACh so another muscle protein doesn't arise unless more ACh is released from motor neuron
What are the events that happen in contraction and relaxation in a skeletal muscle fiber? 4.Muscle action potential travelling along Ttubule opens Ca release channels in the sacroplasmic reticulum (SR) 5. Ca2 binds to troponin on the filament, exposing the binding sites for myosin
What are the events that happen in contraction and relaxation in a skeletal muscle fiber? 7. Ca2+ release channels in SR close and Ca2+ active transport pumps use ATP to restore low level of calcium ions in sarcoplasm 8. tropoin- tropomyosin compolex slides back into position where it blocks the myosin binding sites
What are the events in NMJ? 1. botulinum toxi produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinrium blocks release of ACh 2. bacteria proliferate in improperly canned foods and their toxin is one of the most lethal chemicals 3. a tiny amount can cause death by paralyzing the diaphraga
What are the events in NMJ? 4. injection of botox into the affected muslces can help patients who have crossed eyes or uncontrollable blinking 5. curare like drugs are often used during surgery to relax skeletal musices
What is skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscles? Skeletal- attach to bones and moves parts of the skeleton Cardiac- found only in the heart, forms the bulk of the heart wall, striated Smooth-located in the walls of hollow internal structures such as blood vessels, nonstriated and involuntary
What is actin, tropomysin, and troponin? actin- a contractile protein that is part of the thin filaments in muscle fibers tropomysin & troponin- two thin filments protein molecules that cover the myosin-binding sites on actin in relaxed muscle fibers
What is Sarcrolemma? the cell membrane of a muscle fiber especially of a skeletal muscle fiber?
what is a t-tubules? tunnel like extension of the sacrolemma pass through the muscle fiber from side to side
What is a tendon? a cord of dense regular connective tissue composed of paralled bundles of collagen fibers
What is a fascia? applied to a sheet or broad band of fibrous connective tissue beneath the skin or around muscles and other organs of the body.
What events happen from muscular tissue? 1. producing body movements-walking running writing or nodding. 2. stabilizing body positions- help maintain body position such as standing & sitting 3. regulating organ volume- sustained contractions of ring-like bands of smooth muscles called sphincte
What events happen from muscular tissue? 4. movig substances within the body- contraction and relaxation of smooth muscules in the walls of blood vessels. 5. producing head- as muscular tissue contracts, it produces heat.
Created by: Savanna.Marie