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Circulation Ch. 8

Movement of air masses are due to what 2 major factors? Uneven solar heating (depends on latitude)and Deflection due to the Coriolis effect
rising air at the equator && tropics carries a lot of vapor which is caused by? Moisture
Molecule by molecule (solids, liquids, gases) Conduction
By mass motion in a fluid (gas or liquid) Convection
either by particles (photons) or waves Radiation
What is the main source of Energy for the oceans and atmosphere of Earth? Solar Heating
Transfer of heat from regions of greater heating at the EQUATOR to LESSER HEATING at the POLES drive movement of what? air and water control our seasons and control our weather.
What does the amount of heat (radiation) depend on? the position of the sun at the horizon
What is the Earths axis of rotation tilted to? 23.5 relative to its orbits around the sun
In December, the northern hemisphere is tilted away from? the Sun, so it gets less heat input.
In June, the northern hemisphere is tilted towards? towards the Sun, so it gets more heat input.
The Tilt determines our? Seasons
the Earth’s surface takes time to absorb the heat and warm, especially the oceans due to high heat capacity. Thermal inertia
On average, the Earth re-radiates as much heat in as it gets from the Sun. Heat In >>> Earth >>> Heat out
Net surplus at the equator and a deficit at the poles? Heat transfers
How does heat transfer winds and ocean current
Why does hot air rise? molecules in warm air are farther apart because of higher vibration energy (temperature), so density is less hot!
Air pressure is a fancy word for? weight of the column of air above you
As air rises pressure decreases
As pressure decreases air expands
it takes energy for the air molecules to move farther apart, in which energy has to come from the? vibrational energy molecules= tempature
Adiabatic is when there is no heat in or out which then is cooling; air sinking
Adiabatic heating warming undergoes
Covection is formed when air cools. (Convection is clouds)
Cold Air holds less moisture
The ocean at the equator is warmer, thus water is evaporating and the rising air has more water vapor, thus causes humiditiy
Dry air is more dense then humid air
three cells per hemisphere Hadley Cell, Ferrell Cell, Polar Cell
Hadley Cell tropical latitudes (0-30 N or S)
Ferrel Cell mid latitudes (30-60 N or S)
Polar Cell Polar high latitudes (60-90 N or S)
Doldrums or Intertropical Convergence Zone is? equatorial area where air moves vertically upward
Where can Intertropical Convergence Zones or Doldrums be found at? low atmospheric pressure regions.. Surface winds are WEAK, rainy weather, thunderstorms
Jet Stream High altitude winds that form between cells- useful for pilots- westerly winds across US
Oceans and atmosphere are in continuous contact
Movement of air masses in the atmosphere is due to mainly what 2 major factors? Uneven solar heating (depends on latitude) and deflection due to the Cariolis effect
The intensity of the Coriolis Effect increases with latitude, thus the STRONGEST are at the POLES and the WEAKEST are at the EQUATOR
N. hemisphere rotates clockwise
S. Hemisphere rotates anticlockwise
2/3 of heat transfer to poles occurs by air currents
Average wind directions are set by what two processes? uneven solar heating and Cariolis effect
Storms are powered by solar energy
Extra tropical cyclone when air masses collide between Ferrel and Polar cells
Tropical Cyclone when a warm humid air mass aqcuires energy from warm water as it passes over. (forms in tropical regions)
water warmer then 26 C warm and humid air rise and produces rain
air IN cyclone storms turns in opposite direction to Cariolois
extratropical cyclones usually develop in winter when temp differences across the polar front are LARGE
Nor Easters examples of extratropical cyclones. Atlantic Ocean.. North America
Created by: 740667771