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Science 5.3 2013-14

5.3 Notes

Chemical bond formed when 2 atoms share electrons covalent bond
What kind of elements form covalent bonds? non-metal and a non-metal
What kind of elements form an ionic bond? non-metal and a metal
What is the most important characteristic to determine how an atom will bond? the number of valence electrons
What is the name for the group of atoms joined by covalent bonds? molecule
What is a double bond? When atoms share two pairs of electrons
How many electrons are shared in a double bond? 4
Compared to ionic compounds, are the boiling and melting points higher or lower for molecular compounds? Why? Lower because ionic bonds are much stronger than covalent bonds
What is the greatest number of valence electrons an atom can have? 8
What element has a full outermost shell with only 2 electrons? Helium
Why doesn't pure water conduct electricity? It is covalently bonded so there are no ions to conduct the electricity
What causes pairs of electrons to share unequally in covalent bonding? The atom with more protons (so it's bigger!)pulls the electron closer to it and it becomes slightly negatively charged. The atoms are NOT ions.
Name of a bond in which the electrons share unequally? polar
Name of a bond in which the electrons share equally? nonpolar
What is the shape of a molecule that contains polar bonds but is nonpolar overall? straight line
What is the shape of a molecule that contains polar bonds and is polar overall? slightly bend,looks like Mickey Mouse ears!
By sharing electrons, each atom becomes stable with how many electrons? Which element is the exception, and how many does it become stable with? Why? 8, except H, which is 2 electrons b/c it's already stable so it doesn't need to share.
What is a covalent bond? the attractive force between each atom's nucleus for the shared pair of electrons
What does "pair" mean? How many is a pair? two
Do atoms share one electron? no
How many covalent bonds can H form? Why? one because it only needs one more electrons to have a full energy level
What is a triple bond? when atoms share three pairs of electrons
How many electrons are shared in a triple bond? 6
What is a molecular compound composed of? molecules
Describe characteristics of molecular compounds in regards to melting/boiling points and explain why. lower melting points and boiling points compared to ionic compounds ionic bonds are much stronger than covalent bonds. Covalent bonds are weaker b/c they don't have a charge like ions do.
Do molecular compounds conduct electricity? no
Explain surface tension of water in terms of polar covalent bonds. b/c polar bonds have slight charges, each molecule is attracted to the surrounding molecules causing a tight skin across the surface of the water
Why is there NO surface tension in a liquid containing nonpolar bonds? b/c without the slight charge of polar bonds, there would be no electrical attraction b/t the molecules
Created by: mtnbrook