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Apologia Gen Sci 6

Apologia Exploring Creation with General Science Module 6

Name, Term, or ConceptDescription/Definition
catastrophism * the view that most of earth's geological features are the result of large-scale catastrophes such as floods, volcanic eruptions, etc.
uniformitarianism * the view that most of earth's geological features are the result of slow, gradual processes that have been at work for millions or even billions of years
humus * the decayed remains of once-living creatures
sedimentary rock rock that is formed from sediments which are laid down by water or some other agent and fuse together due to heat, pressure, and various chemical reactions
sediments sand, silt, and other components of soil
igneous rock rock that forms from molten rock (magma, lava from volcanoes)
metamorphic rock rock that has undergone extreme change due to lots of heat and pressure
minerals * inorganic crystalline substances found naturally in the earth
inorganic did not come from a living being
crystalline having a very sharp, geometric shape
strata layers
lamination a single layer of rock that is less than 1 centimeter (0.39 inches) thick
laminae several lamination layers formed right next to each other
weathering * the process by which rocks are broken down by the forces of nature
erosion * the process by which sediments and rock fragments are carried away by wind or rain
groundwater water that flows underground
cavern open space underground where groundwater has eroded the rock
stalactite an icicle-like structure hanging down from the ceiling of a cavern formed by groundwater dripping and leaving sediment on the ceiling
stalagmite a structure rising from the ground of a cavern formed by groundwater dripping and leaving sediment on the ground where it dripped
column a structure formed in a cavern when a stalactite and a stalagmite meet and form a single structure
unconformity * a surface of erosion that separates one layer of rock from another
angular unconformity an unconformity where the rocks below are tilted relative to the rocks above
nonconformity separation between stratified layers and unstratified layers
stratified arranged in layers
disconformities unconformities where there are parallel, stratified rock layers above and below the unconformity, but a clear surface of erosion between them
paraconformities unconformities where geologists believe there is an unconformity but cannot identify it
intrusion "veins" of igneous rock shooting right through several layers of sedimentary rock, formed when magma from underneath the sedimentary rock gets injected in the cracks of the sedimentary rock
sills the "veins" of igneous rock that run in the same direction of the strata of the sedimentary rock
dikes the "veins" of igneous rock that run perpendicular to the strata of the sedimentary rock
Created by: ginnie