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Blood and Lymph

68WM6 Phase 2 Exam 14

QuestionAnswer
What is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation? (DIC) Aquired hemorrhage syndrome syndrome or clotting casscade overstimulation, and anti-clotting process.
What is Erythrocytosis? Abnormal increase in the number of circulating red blood cells.
What is Hemarthrosis? Bleeding into a joint space.
What is Hemophilia A? Hereditary coagulation disorder; caused by lack of antihemophilic factor VIII, which is needed to convert prothrombin into thrombin through thromboplastin component.
What is Heterozygous? Having two different genes.
What is Homozygous? Having two identical genes inherited from each parent for a given hereditary characteristic.
What is Leukemia? Malignant disorder of the hematopoietic system in which an excess of leukocytes accumulate in the bone marrow and lymph nodes.
What is Lymphangitis? Inflammation of one or more lymphatic vessels or channels that usually result from an acute streptococcal or staphylococcal infection in an extremity.
What is Lymphedema? Primary or secondary disorder characterized by the accumulation of lymph fluid in soft tissue, resulting in edema.
What is Multiple Myeloma? Malignant neoplastic immunodeficiency disease of the bone marrow.
What is Myeloproliferative? Excessive bone marrow production.
What is Pancytoenic? Deficient condition of all three major blood elements (RBC, WBC and platelets) result from bone marrow being reduced or absent.
What does pernicious mean? Capable of causing great injury or destruction; deadly/fatal.
What are Reed-Sternberg Cells? Atypical histiocytes; large abnormal, multinucleated cells in the lymphatic system, found in Hodgkin's Disease.
What is Thrombocytopenia? An abnormal hematologic condition in which the number of platelets are reduced to fewer than 100,000/mm3.
What are Neutrophils? Circulating lymphocytes essential for phagocytosis. They are the first line of defense.
What are Eosinophils? Play a role in ALLERGIC reactions and are effective against certain parasitic worms.
What are Basophils? Essential for non immune response to INFLAMMATION because they release histamine during tissue damage or invasion.
What are Monocytes? Function like neutrophils, they engulf foreign antigens and cells. They are the second type of WBC to arrive to the fight.
What are Lymphocytes? WBCs that form antibody, a special protein that combats foreign invaders, or antigens. They have two groups. B cells and T cells.
What are B cells? A type of lymphocyte that that search out, identify and bind with specific antigens.
What are T cells? A type of lymphocyte that divide rapidly when exposed to an antigen. They produce large numbers of new T cells that are sensitized to that antigen. (Killer T cells).
What are Thrombocytes (AKA Platelets)? Smallest cell in the blood. They do not contain a nuclei. Life span is 5-9 days. They are produced in the red bone marrow and play a role in hemostasis. They assist in clot formation.
What is Hemostasis? The body process that arrests the flow of blood and prevents hemorrhage. Three actions take place; Vessel spasm, platelet plug formation and clot formation.
What is O Blood type known as? Known as the universal donor. (Do not contain A or B antigen).
What is AB blood type known as? Known as the universal receiver. (Does not contains anti-A or anti-B antibodies).
What is Agglutination? When donor cells clump together during a blood transfusion because of the antibodies. It occludes arteries and can result in death.
What is Hemolyzation? During a blood transfusion, the antibodies cause the RBCs of the recipient to rupture and release their cell contents; this can also lead to death.
What are the three functions of the lymphatic system? (1) Maintenance of fluid balance, (2) production of (mature) lymphocytes, (3) absorption and transportation of lipids from the intestines to the bloodstream.
What are the two functions of lymph nodes. (1) Filter impurities from the lymph and (2) produce lymphocytes (WBCs).
Where can you find the majority of lymph nodes? Found in the axilla, the groin, the abdomen, the thorax and the cervical region.
What are the functions of the Spleen? Stores 500mls of blood which can be released during emergencies in <60sec. Serves as a reservoir for blood, forms lymphocytes, monocytes and plasma cells, it destroys worn out RBCs and removes bacteria by phagocytosis and it produces RBCs before birth.
What are the functions of the thymus gland? Functions in utero and a few months after birth to develop the immune system. Responsible for the development of T lymphocytes before they migrate to the lymph nodes and the spleen. Atrophies at puberty (replaced by fat and connective tissue).
What does a CBC include? Red and white cell count, hematocrit and hemoglobin levels, erythrocyte indexes, differential white cell count and examination of peripheral blood cells.
What are erythrocyte indices? A measurement of the size and hemoglobin contents of the RBCs.
What is mean corpuscular volume (MCV)? This measurement provides information about the average volume or size of a single RBC.
What are erythrocyte indexes? A measurement of the size and hemoglobin contents of the RBCs.
What is mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)? A measurement of average concentration or percentage of hemoglobin within the RBC.
What is a Schilling's Test? A laboratory blood test used for diagnosis pernicious anemia. It measures absorption of radioactive vitamin B12, before and after parenteral injection of the intrinsic factor, by examination of the urinary excretion of B12 over 24 hours.
What is a peripheral smear? A blood test that allows examination of the size, shape and structure of individual RBCs, WBCs and platelets. Usually used in conjunction with a WBC differential.
What is a Schilling's Test? A laboratory blood test used for diagnosis pernicious anemia. It measures absorption of radioactive vitamin B12, before and after parenteral injection of the intrinsic factor, by examination of the urinary excretion of B12 over 24 hours.
What is the most common site for bone marrow aspiration or biopsy? The posterior iliac crest.
What is a lymphangiography used for? Procedure used to evaluate deep lymph nodes for blockages (however, CT is now preferred). If lymphangiography is going to be used it is important to evaluate renal function because of the effect of contrast on severely damaged/poorly functioning kidneys.
What is Anemia? A disorder characterized by levels of RBSs, Hgb and Hct that are below normal range. Insufficient amounts of oxygen are delivered to tissues and cells. This can be caused by hemorrhage, destruction of RBCs and nutritional deficiencies (iron).
What are some clinical manifestations of anemia? Pallor, tachycardia, anorexia, cardiac dilation, disorientation, dizziness, dyspepsia, dyspnea, fatigue, headache, insomnia, palpitations, shortness of breath and systolic murmur.
What is hypovolemic anemia? When deficiencies in RBCs and other components are caused by an abnormally low circulating blood volume from hemorrhage. (Blood loss of 1000ml or more in an adult can be severe).
True or False? An adult can tolerate a blood loss of up to 500mL? True. (If blood loss approaches 1000mL, acute complications, such as hypovolemic shock, may occur.
True or False? When blood loss is sudden, the loss of RBCs is not reflected in laboratory data, and values may seem normal or high for 2-3 days? True.
What are some clinical manifestations of hypovolemic anemia? Weakness, stupor, irritability, pale-cool-diaphoretic skin, poor peripheral pulses, hypotension, delayed capillary refill time, tachycardia, hypothermia, low h/h, oliguria.
What are some possible treatments for hypovolemic anemia? To replace fluid administer IV saline. In severe fluid volume depletion 2L of NS is given. If hypotension continues or if Hgb is below 6g/dL PRBCs are usually given.
What is the treatment to keep Hgb from falling below 7g/dL if PRBCs have not increased the level alone with hypovolemic anemia? Platelets, FFP or cyroprecipitate is included in the treatment to control hemorrhage.
What are some considerations when monitoring urinary output with hypovolemic anemia? The decrease in urinary output correlates to amount of blood loss. If a patient has a blood loss of 1000-1500mL urine output is 20-30mL/hr. With 1500-2000mL urine output is <20mL/hr. and blood loss of 2000mL or more would result in anuria.
What is Pernicious Anemia? Result of a metabolic defect. Absence of glycoprotein intrinsic factor secreted by the gastic mucosa. Intrinsic factor is then not available to combine with vitamin B12 to transport to the ileum.
What is prostration? A condition of extreme physical exhaustion.
What effect does a deficiency of B12 have on the body? This vitamin is related to nerve myelination; its absence leads to progressive demyelination and degeneration of nerves and white matter.
What are some clinical manifestations of pernicious anemia? Extreme weakness, dyspnea, fever, hypoxia, weight loss, beefy red tongue, slight icterus (jaundice) with pallor, edema in the legs, intermittent constipation and diarrhea.
What is a Serum Megaloblastic Anemia Profile test used for? Used to detect decrease serum levels of vitamin B12, serum methylmalonic acid and homocysteine. (Replaced the Schilling's Test).
What is the treatment for an absence of intrinsic factor in the stomach or malabsorption problem in the ileum cause B12 deficiency? Cyanocobalamin injections, folic acid supplement, and iron replacement are order for treatment of these problems.
What are some nursing interventions for a patient with pernicious anemia? Hospitalized patients should have vitals taken Q4 hrs, preform special mouth care several times a day. Diet should consist of high protein, vitamins and minerals. Due to intolerance to cold, lightweight warm blankets may be needed.
What is Aplastic Anemia (aplasia)? Failure of the normal process of cell generation and development. It can be congenital or acquired.
Aplastic anemia is directly related to what exposure? Viral invasion, medications, chemicals (ex. benzene, insecticides, arsenic or alcohol), radiation, or chemotherapy.
True or False? People with Aplastic anemia are rarely pancytopenic? False. Depression of erythrocyte production results in low Hgb and RBCs. Leukopenia and thrombocytopenia may develop (pancytopenia).
How long do patients with pernicous anemia take vitamin B12 replacement? B12 is a lifelong treatment.
Created by: LizzieTomlin