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Med-Surg Ch 38

Musculoskeletal System

3 Functions Support, Protection, Movement
Composed of 6 things Bones, Cartilage, Ligaments (bone to bone), Tendons (muscle to bone), Muscles, Joints
4 Bone Shapes Long (Arms, legs, fingers, toes), Short (Wrist, ankle), Flat (Skull, sternum, ribs), Irregular (vertebrae, scapula, pelvic girdle)
5 Parts of bone structure Osteoblast (Form bone), Osteocytes (Maintain bone matrix), Osteoclast (Resorb bone), Osteoprogenitor (Source of all bone cells except Osteoclasts), Periosteum (Double-layered connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerves that cover bones)
Remodeling and repair occur throughout life by Ossification (Development of bone) and Hormone regulation
2 Bone Hormone Regulators Parathyroid hormone (Simulates ostyoclast activity; Helps with calcium activity cause body will steal calcium from bone if heart or muscle lacks) and Calcitonin (Regulates blood calcium levels, may even steal calcium from blood stream back to bones)
Cartilage: What is it, and the 3 kinds? Firm, flexible connective tissue; 3 types: Elastic, Hyaline, and Fibro-cartilage
Function of Skeletal Muscles Attach to and cover the bones of the skeleton; Promote body movement; Maintain posture; Produce body heat from movement and shivering. 3 types: Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac
4 Functional Properties of Muscle Excitability (receive and respond to stimuli); Contractibility (Contract/relax, Forcibly shorten); Extensibility (Extent/relax); Elasticity (Ability to resume resting length)
3 Types of Joints Synarthrodial (Immovable, ex. Skull and Epiphyseal plates); Amphiarthrodial (slightly movable, ex. pelvis and vertebral); Diarthrodial (synovial, freely movable, ex. traditional joints)
Ligaments connect ? to Joint (bone) Joint
Tendons connect ? to Joint (bone) Muscle
5 P's Pain, Pallor, Pulse, Paralysis, Parasthesia
Assessment of Face and Neck Puff cheeks, Stick out tongue
Assessment of Spine Touch toes
Assessment of Hands Grip, Phallen’s test
Assessment of Hips Lie, flex knees to chest (One at a time), Comparable lengths of legs
Assessment of Ankles and Feet Flex, point; Eversion, inversion
Neurovascular Assessment If no pulse noted, use Doppler; 5-Ps
Psychosocial Assessment Prolonged absence at work, Job change, Permanent disability, Chronic pain, Body image
Calcium Levels (9-11 mg/dL) (osteoporosis)
Phosphorus Levels (2.5-4.5 mg/dL)
RA factor with Lab Tests arthritis, Scleroderma, lupus
Uric Acid Levels (Gout) (3.5-8 male) (2.8-6.8 Female) (>10 = panic level)
Creatine kinase Measures muscle trauma
Bone Density Tests Mineral density, No metal objects, like MRI
Bone Scan Give you radioisotope, measures uptake; Increase fluids after
Other Diagnostics CT, MRI, X-ray, EMG (Looks at nerve impulses), Arthroscopy (Fiberoptic tube, Pain after, Analgesics), Arthrocentesis (Needle, aspirate synovial fluid)
Created by: nimeggs