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Pharm One

Definitions

QuestionAnswer
What is an adverse effect? A drug effect that is more severe than expected and has the potential to damage tissue or cause serious health problems. It may also be called a toxic effect ot toxicity and usually requires intervention by the prescriber.
What is an agonist? An extrinsic drug that activitates the receptor site of a cell and mimics the actions of naturally occurring drugs (intrinsic drugs)
What is an antagonist? An extrinsic drug that blocks the receptor site of a cell, preventing the naturally occurring substance from binding to the receptor.
What is bioavailability? The percentage of a drug dose that actually reaches the blood
What does cytotoxic mean? Drug action that is intended to kill a cell or organism
What is duration of action? The length of time a drug is present in the blood at or above the level needed to produce an effect or reponse
What is the enteral route? Movement of drugs from the outside of the body to the inside using the gastrointestinal tract
What are extrinsic drugs? Drugs that are man-made (synthetic) or derived from another species, not made by the human body
What is first pass lost? Rapid inactivation or elimination of oral drugs as a result of liver metabolism.
What is half life? Time span needed for one half of a drug dose to be eliminated.
What are intrinsic drugs? Hormones, enzymes, growth factors and other chemicals made by the body that change the activity of cells.
What is a loading dose? The first dose of a drug that is larger than all subsequent doses of the same drug; used when it takes more drug to reach steady state that it does to maintain it.
What is mechanism of action? Exactly how, at the cellular level, a drug changes the activity of a cell.
What is metabolism? Chemical reaction in the body that changes the chemical shape and content of a drug, preparing the drug for inactivation and elimination.
What is the minimum effective concentration (MEC)? The smallest amount of drug necessary in the blood or target tissue to result in a measurable intended action.
What is the parenteral route? Movement of a drug from the outside of the body to the inside of the body by injection ( intra-arterial, intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous, intracavity, intraosseous, intrathecal).
What is peak? Maximum blood drug level.
What is the percutaneous route? Movement of a drug from the outside of the body to the inside through the skin or mucous membranes.
What are idiosyncratic responses (personal responses)? Unexpected adverse effects that are unique to the patient and not related to the mechanism, of action of the drug.
What is pharmacodynamics? Ways in which drugs work to change body function.
What is pharmacokinetics? How the body changes drugs; drug metabolism.
What is the physiologic effect? The change in body function as an outcome of the mechanism of action of a drug.
What is potency? The strength of the intended action produced at a given drug dose.
What are receptors? Physical place on or in a cell where a drug can bind and interact.
What is sequestration? The "trapping" of drugs within certain body tissues, delaying their elimination and extending their duration of action.
What is steady state? Point at which drug elimination is balanced with drug entry, resulting in a constant effective blood level of the drug.
What is target tissue? The actual cells or tissues affected by the mechanism of action or intended actions of a specific drug.
What is a trough? The lowest or minimal blood drug level.
What are side effects? Any minor effect of a drug on body cells or tissues that is not the intended action of a drug.
What is the affective domain? The learning area concerned with attitudes, values, interests, and adjustment.
What is the cognitive domain? The learning area of intellectual ability.
What is the psychomotor domain? The learning areas concerned with motor skills.
What is extravasation? Condition in which an IV needle or catheter pulls from the vein and causes tissue damage by leaking irritating IV fluids into the surrounding tissue.
What is fluid overload? An accidental infusion of IV fluids at a much faster rate than was ordered, causing harm to the patient. Sometimes called a "runaway IV."
What is the psychomotor domain? The learning areas concerned with motor skills.
What is the psychomotor domain? The learning areas concerned with motor skills.
What is extravasation? Condition in which an IV needle or catheter pulls from the vein and causes tissuer damage by leaking irritation IV fluids into the surrounding tissue.
What is fluid overload? And accidental infusion of IV fluids at a much faster rate than was ordered, causing harm to the patient. Sometimes called a "runaway IV."
What is infiltration? Condition in which an IV needle or catheter pulls from the vein and begins to leak IV fluids into the surrounding tissue, resulting in tissue swelling.
What is acute pain? Pain that has a sudden onset, an identifiable cause, and a limited duration; triggers physiologic changes; and improves with time even when it is not treated.
What is addiction? The psychologic need or craving for th "high" feeling that results from using opioids when pain is not present.
What are analgesics? Drugs that provide pain relief by either changing the perception of pain or reducing its source.
What is chronic pain? Pain that has a long duration, may not have an identifiable cause, does not trigger physiologic changes, and persists or increases wirth time.
Physical changes in autonomic nervous system function that can occur when opioids are used long term.
What is insomnia? Inability to go to sleep or to remain asleep throughout the night.
What is narcolepsy? A sleep problem with sudden, uncontrollable urges to sleep, causing the person to fall asleep at inappropriate times.
What are nociceptors? Free sensory nerve endings that, when activated, trigger a message sent to the brain that allows the perception of pain.
What is the pain threshold? The smallest amount of tissue damage that must be present before a person is even aware that he or she is having pain.
What is pain tolerance? A person's ability to endure or "stand" pain intensity.
What is tolerance? The adjustment of the body to long term opioid use that increases the rate that a drug is eliminated and reduces the main effects (pain relief)and side effects of the drug. More drug is needed to achieve the same degree of pain relief.
What is withdrawal? Autonomic nervous system symptoms occurring when long term opioid therapy is stoppped suddenly after physical dependence is present. Symptoms include nausea, vomtiing, abdominal cramping, sweating, delirium, and seizures.
What is a nonopioid analgesic? A drug that reduces a person's perception of pain; it is NOT similar to opium and has little potential for psychologic or physical dependence
What are antihistamines? Drugs that reduce inflammation by preventing the inflammatory mediator histamine from binding to its receptor site; same as histamine blockers or histamine antagonists.
What are anti-inflammatory drugs? A drug that prevents or limits tissue and blood vessel responses to injury or invasion.
What are corticosteroids? Drugs similar to natural cortisol that prevent or limit inflammation by slowing or stopping inflammatory mediator production.
What is cyclo-oxygenase (COX)? An enzyme important in converting body chemicals into mediators of inflammation.
What is a histamine? A chemical made by the body that binds to receptor sites and causes inflammatory responses.
What is an infection? Invasion of the body by microorganisms that disturb the normal environment and cause harm.
What is inflammation? A syndrome of tissue and blood vessel responses to injury or invasion.
What are kinins? A group of chemicals made by the body that cause some of the signs and symptoms of inflammation, especially pain.
What are leukotrienes? A chemical made by the body that binds to its receptors and maintains an inflammatory response.
What are mediators? Body chemicals such as histamine, leukotriene, prostaglandins, and kinins that cause inflammatory responses.
What are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)? Antiflammatory drugs that are not similar to cortisol but prevent or limit the tissue and blood vessel responses to injury or invasion by slowing the production of one or more inflammatory mediators.
What are prostaglandins? A family of chemicals made by the body, some of which cause the signs and symptoms of inflammation.
Created by: judypilcher