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science objectives 2

Objectives Oct 10-Nov 8

Define what a rock is describe how a rock is different from a mineral. Minerals have a distinct chemical composition; Rocks are solids that are made of a combination of minerals, fragments of other rocks, remains of plants and animals.
State the three classifications of a rock. Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary.
Describe the difference between Magma and lava. Magma is molten rock below the earth’s surface. Lava is molten rock above the earth’s surface.
Compare and Contrast intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks. Crystals? Intrusive rocks are formed from magma and have large crystals. Extrusive rocks are formed from lava and have small crystals.
Name the 3 categories of sedimentary rock and describe them.
Clastic Sedimentary Rock: A type of Sedimentary rock that forms from the accumulation of rock fragments.
Biological Sedimentary Rock A type of Sedimentary rock that forms from the accumulation of plant or animal remains
Chemical Sedimentary Rock: A type of Sedimentary Rock that forms from minerals that precipitates from a solution.
Contrast how Igneous rocks and sedimentary rocks are formed. Sedimentary Rocks are formed at or near Earths surface by the settling and accumulation of rocks and others. Igneous rock is formed from hot molten rock below the earth or erupting at its surface.
Igneous Rock: A type of rock that is formed when molten rock cools or solidifies. Can be an intrusive or extrusive depending on where it is formed.
Intrusive Rock a type of rock that is formed when molten rock cools or solidifies at or near the earths surface
Extrusive Rock: A type of igneous rock that forms beneath the earth’s surface as magma cools and solidifies.
Sedimentary Rock: a type of rock that is formed from accumulated deposits of rock etc.
Sediment: Solid Pieces of rock, minerals or remains of plants or animals that range in size and can be transported by erosion.
Rocks: Solids, made up of a combination of minerals, other rocks or plants and animals.
Compaction: a step in the lithification process that occurs as the weight of over lying materials compress buried sediment.
Cementation: a step in the lithification process where minerals dissolved in solution fills open pore spaces between sediment granules and re-crystallize binding the individual grains together.
Lithification: The process of converting loos sediment into solid sedimentary rock by compaction, cementation, and crystallization
Describe how a metamorphic rock can be formed, name the 2 different types. Foliated and nonfoliated, It can be heated, pressured or have elements replaced by hot fluids
Compare and Contrast foliated metamorphic rocks.
Foliated: formed when minerals within pre-existing rock are squeezed flat or elongated resulting in a banded layered appearance often reflecting the direction the pressure was applied.
Nonfoliated: a rock formed from preexisting rock by pressure and/or heat that lacks a distinct banded or layered appearance.
Describe how the 2 types of metamorphic rocks can form (foliated from nonfolitated formation) Foliated is formed from pressure. Nonfoliated is formed from heat or pressure. See chart for more
Describe the processes whereby rocks can change from one type to another.
Rock Cycle: a set of linked geologic proceses that describes the transformations between igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary rocks.
Weathering and Erosion: Chemical and mechanical processes at or near Earth’s surface that break down materials and movement of those materials from one place to another.
Transport of Sediment: Exposed Sediment is moved by agents of erosion such as water or wind.
Deposition and Soil Builup: The accumulation of sediment and soil in a particular location over time.
Burial and Compaction: Over laying sediment can build up subjecting pressure. This pressure along with cementation can cause sediment to change form.
Cementation: a process where minerals dissolved in solution full open pore spaces between sediment granueles and re crystallize, binding the individual grains.
Heat and Pressure: Thermal energy and the application of force are major influences in the rock cycle.
List the ways that granite can be changed by the forces on and in Earth. It can cool, erode, transport of sediment, Compaction, Cementation, Deposition, Uplift and Exposure.
Cooling: the temperature of molten rock can drop causing them to change from liquid to solid.
Uplift and Exposure: Geologic activity below earths surface can sometimes raise and expose layers of rock that were once located below the surface.
Identify the different types of rock and the processes that change rocks from one type to another.
Granodiorite: Igneous
Banded Ironstone: Sedimentary
Schist: Metamorphic (Fine sediment particles like silt and clay) pressure
Limestone: Sedimentary
Loess: Sedimentary
Marble: Metamorpic (limestone) formed through re-crystalization
Obsidian: Igneous
Pegmatite: Igneous
Shale: Sedimentary
Gabbro: Igneous
Slate: Metamorphic (shale Pressure
Jadeitite: Metamorpic (sodium aluminum-silicate minerals)
For each major rock type give examples of rocks that are commonly found and used.
Obsidian: Jewlry, ancient cutting tools.
Basalt: Aspalt roads, stone statures, floor tiles, roads.
Granite: Roads, Buildings, counter tops.
Pegmatite: gem material, pharmaceutical products, circuts, electronics.
Limestone: Building Material, soil conditioner, insecticides, linoleum, fiberglass.
Sandstone: Building material.
Marble: Sculpter, buildings.
Slate: Roofing, Building material.
Identify rocks as igneous sedimentary or metamorphic by observing physical features of the rock.
Igneous Extrusive • Glassy pores/gas bubbles • Dense • fine grained
Igneous Intrusive • Large crystals • Coarse grained • Hard
Sedimentary Clastic • Layers • Particles of other rocks • Mixture of grains= sizes • Fossils
Sedimentary Chemical • Small grained • no layers
Metamorpic Foliated • Ribbon like layers of mineral crystals
Metamorpic Non foliated • No layers • Crystals visable
Discribe how weathering and erosion work together to break down rock and produce sediment. Weathering breaks down material, Erosion moves it. They drive the rock cycle on or near the surface of the earth.
Distinguish between mechanical and chemical weathering.
Mechanical weathering: a process of physically breaking materials such as rocks into smaller pieces without altering the chemical composition of its componits.
Chemical weathering: a process which changes materials such as rocks by altering the chemical compostition of its componets
Weathering: chemical and mechanical processes at or near the earths surface that break down materials such as rocks and minerals.
Erosion: The wearing away of land by physical or chemical processes.
Parent material: the original substance from which rock sediment or soil is formed.
Describe the following processes of weathering and their effect on rocks.
Ice wedging: Mechanical weatherine process that breaks apart rocks as wate seeps into cracks freezes then expands (breaks rocks apart)
Root wedging: tree roots can find their way into cracks of rocks widening the cracks as the grow (breaks rocks apart).
Abrasion: the scraping of rock caused by particles carried by wind,water, and ice. (wears rocks down)
Exfoliation: a mechanical weathering process that occurs when outer layers of rock flake off. (wears down rock)
Describe the following processes of weathering and their effect on rocks
Carbonation: a process where carbon dioxide dissolves in water forming carbonic acid.
Hydrolosis: a chemical weathering process where minerals break down because of a reaction with ions such as h+ from water.
Oxidation: a chemical change that occurs when certain minerals are exposed to oxygen.
Lichen part fungus part algea. Secrets a week acid that can chemically weather a rock.
Acid Rain: precipitation with a pH below 7.0 to atmospheric pollutants such as dissolved carbon dioxide.
Summerize and briefly describe the chemical and or mechanical effects each of these agents of weatherine has on rocks: water wind gravity living organisms. Water wears away rocks and carry sediment. Wind wears away rock. Gravity makes rocks fall. living organisms break up rock.
Classify the types of weathering listed below as chemical or mechanical.
Carbonation= Chemical
Oxidation= Chemical
Lichen= Chemical
Ice Wedging= mechanical
Root wedging= Mechanical
Abrasion= mechanical
Exfolitation= mechanical
Explain how each of the following can affect the rate of weathering of a rock.
Type of rock: Limestone will wear away a lot faster because acid will wear away the calcite
Surface area: the greather the surface ares of a rock the faster it will wear.
Exposure: Exposed rocks will generaly wear away much faster then unexposed rocks
Climate: Regions of heay rainfall will wear away sedimentary rock
Human Activity: Clearing away fields: fast Dynomite: fast mining and agroculture.
Physical Properties: a characteristic of a substance that can be observed by its interaction with matter and energy without being changed chemicaly
Explain how the features of a rock can affect its rate of weathering. The harder the minerals that a rock is made of will make the rock harder to break.
Sandstone: sedimentary
Shale: sedimentary
Limestone: sedimentary
Shist: Metamorphic (shale)
Marble: Metamorpic (limestone)
Gneiss: Metamorpic (shist)
Slate: Metamorpic (Clay sediments or shale)
Quartzite: Metamorpic (sandstone)
Granite: Igneous
Basalt: Igneous
Gabbro: Igneous
Pumice: Igneous
Obsidian: Igneous
Created by: c.culicchia