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NSG 210 Ch. 60

Assessment of Neurologic Fx

weakness of both legs and lower part of trunk? paraparesis
Which cerebral lobe contain auditory receptive areas? temporal
Cerebral lobe largest and controls abstract thought? frontal
Cranial nerve for facial sensation and corneal reflex? 5, Trigeminal
(upper, lower) motor neurons cause no muscle atrophy upper
recording electrical activity of muscle electromyogram
what are sympathetic effects dilated pupils
Nerve cell vocab: dendrite? axon? myelin sheath? node? "blister packs"? dendrite: receive message axon: carry impulse away from cell body myelin: insulator of axon tail node: exposed area bn myelin Pack: neurotransmitters are stored
saltatory conduction? cable conduction? salt: electrical impulse jump from node to node, quick cable: electrical impulse thru axon, not jump, not myelin, slower
what is the functional unit of the brain? Can they regenerate? two types? neuron, yes myelinated(motor run from brain to body, saltatory), unmyelinated(sensory from body to brain, cable)
What is length of time optimal for neuron recover of fx? 1-2 years
What makes up the BBB to protect body? What freely moves in/out BBB? BBB: astrocytes with macrophages and allows glucose/O2
the neurotransmitter that is excitatory in the ANS in many parts of brain acetylcholine
neurotransmitter, excitatory in SNS in brain stem, hypothalamus and affects mood and overall activity norepi
neurotransmitter, in basal ganglia, inhibitory affecting behavior, fine mvmt and decr in parkinson's? Incr causes? dopamine psychosis
neurotransmitter, excitatory, inihibits pain, gives pleasure, body' Morphine found in spine, brain stem, thalamus Enkephalin, endorphin
neurotransmitter, inhibitory and has increase in alcohol withdrawal, Versed, benzo's GABA
What comprises the CNS brain stem, spinal cord
What is the seat of consciousness? cerebrum
Cerebrum controls? voluntary mvmt, higher fx: memories, emotions, IQ
What separates the two hemispheres of the brain corpus collosum
The Diencephalon controls hormones and sensory input, what r two important glands are part of this thalamus hypothalamus
the thalamus acts as a _______ for nerve impulses? The hypothalamus is the _______ for all ANS systems? Tha: sensory relay, switching station Hypo: master control/gland, reg. temp, pituitary gland, water balance, circadian rhythms, hunger and appetite
What two problems can occur when the water balance of the hypothalamus is disturbed? Diabetes Insipidus and SAIDH
The frontal lobe is the largest and responsible for judgement, personality, inhibitions, foresight
Located in the back of the frontal lobe is ________ and controls _________. It is contralateral. motor strip, voluntary motor fx
What is the are for motor area of speech? Which side is it typically located? Define expressive aphasia and dysphasia. Broca's area on left. Exp Aph: inability to speak dys: difficulty speaking
This lobe interprets from the thalamus sensory information in the brain. parietal lobe
The sensory strip is located where? front of parietal lobe, next to motor strip
The temporal lobe is location of what? auditory, taste, smell receptive areas, near Broca's area
This special area controls hearing and understand of what we heard Wernicke Area
What is auditory receptive aphasia in ability to understand the sounds of speech. Ability to speak is not affected. Difficulty naming objects...Wellow for yellow. Anxiety makes worse
What lobe controls visual interpretation Occipital lobe
What is the term for losing ability to both understand and communicate? Global Aphasia
What happens in the midbrain? Pons? medulla oblongata? mid: auditory/visual reflexes, sleep/wake, temp reg. pon: sleep, resp, swallowing, bladder control, hearing, eye mvmt, facial sensation, posture Med: cardiac, resp, vomit, vasomotor, autonomic fx, cranial nerves IX - XII
What happens in cerebellum? equillibrium, posture, muscle tone, proprioception. Romberg test for ataxia, balance
What are three layers of brain from outter to inner Dura Mater: outter cover CNS Arachnoid Mater: produces CNF by plexus, villi absorb CSF Pia Mater: hugs brain, circle of Willis
What is the purpose of CSF? What are pressures of recumbent position? sitting? cushioning, sterile, number tubes in spinal tap, no blood after 1st recumbent: 60-180 sit: 200-350
What is the largest art in the brain? middle cerebral art where most strokes are
What is most important for brain activity to exist? glucose and oxygen
What is unique about cerebral veins? no valves, so blood flow in vv depends on gravity and BP
How can you bypass BBB? intrathecal
TIA vs RIND TIA: reduction of blood for up to 24hr and resolves self. RIND: ischemia lasts 24-48h
Describe the 31 pairs of nerves which are part of the peripheral nervous system. 8 cervical...5th effect diaphragm 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 5 sacral 1 coccygeal
Where does spinal cord end and where is spinal tap done? L2 L3-L4
Sensory nerves travel how? Locate where on horn? What two tests are done to test this? from the body to brain(ascending) and located posterior horns(upper). Two point location and stereognosis(ability to recognize object by feel)
motor pathways are locate where? How do they travel? anterior horns(lower) and travel from brain to body(descending)
Motor pathways have two levels describe them upper: go from brain down spine. Damage is usually due to stroke/trauma and leave pt w/o mvmt of muscle, but have clonus(bouncing) lower: from spine to muscles. Pt feel like muscle should work, but not and damage is to spinal cord
How does a pain signal travel in the body? step on nail, sensory detects stimuli to move body. Brain send signa thru motor pathway to inhibit mvmt.
What are the 12 cranial nerves? On Old Olympus Towering Tops A Finn and German Viewed Some Hops...olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, hypoglossal
Which one are somatic/motor/both Some say marry money but my brother says big boobs matter more.
I Olfactory? Test? II Optic? III Oculomotor? olf: (S) smell Opt: (S) visual acuity and fields Ocu: (M) moves eyes/lids, papillary constriction, lens accomodation
IV Trochlear V Trigeminal VI Abducens Troch: (M) muscles that move eyes up/d Tri: (B)facial sensation, corneal reflex Abd: (M)musclese that move eyes lateral
VIII Vestibulocochlear IX Glossopharyngeal X Vagus XI Spinal Accessory XII Hypoglossal Vest: (S)acoustic, hearing equilibrium Gloss: (B)taste, swallowing Vag:(B)slows heart, bronchoconstrict Sp Acc: (M) shrug shoulder Hypo: tongue
Area of the body that each of the spinal nerves effect are our dermatones
The bear is attacking you and what NS is stimulated and how? What neurotransmitters are involved? SNS-sympathetic dilate pupils, bronchioles, art dilate to heart, constrict to peripheral, glucose released from liver, peristalsis slows, BP incr epi/norepi
Where are sympathetic neruons located on spinal cord? thoracic and lumbar
You are eating the bear and what NS is stimulated and how? What neurotransmitters are involved? PSNS-parasympathetic decr BP, bronchioles constrict, peristalsis incr, pupil constrict. Acetylcholine
Where are parasympathetic neruons located on spinal cord? brain stem and below L2
Loss of upper motor neurons cause? Loss of lower motor neurons cause? upper: hemiplegia(paralysis arm/leg same side of body lower: lost reflexes, flaccid, atrophy
Pt has flexion and internal rotation of arms/wrists and extension, plantar flexion, int rotation of feet decortication C's
Pt has extension and external rotation of arms/wrists and extension, plantar flexion and internal rot of feet decerebration
Pt has no motor fx, limp, lack motor tone flaccid
What is the homunculus? somatosensory on frontal and temporal lobe and motor strip on parietal and occipital lobe in brain
Cranial nerve tests for I, II I: pleasant smells under ea nostril II: Snellen chart, test visual field(sup,inf,lat)
Test for Cranial Nerves III, IV, VI Darken room and shine light on pupil, should constrict and other eye should constrict
Test for Cranial Nerve V V: normal = equal strength in muscle tongue blade bn teeth and tug. Strong blink if corneal touched Brush skin in three areas of face and say sharp, soft sensation
Test for Cranial Nerve VII, VIII VII: frown,smile, puff cheeks, whistle, wrinkle forehead. try to pry open closed eyelids sense salt from sugar on ant. tongue VIII: Whisper "99" Romberg test for balance
Test for cranial nerve IX, X, XI, XII IX & X: check gag reflex XI: raise shoulders against resistance, turn chin against resistance XII: stick out tongue
Created by: palmerag