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Social 11(Ch 11-13)

Final Review

Demography study of population numbers, distribution,trends and issues(人口统计学)
Census process of collecting,compiling...about all people living in a particular area(人口普查,统计; 人口财产调查 _
Developed country 发达国家-country with a highly developed economy and living standards
developing country 发展中国家
birth rate # of births per 1000 people in a country in a given year
Death rate # of deaths per 1000 people in a country in a given year
Demographic transition model a model that shows change in a population's birth and death rate and growth based on technological development.
Industrialization 工业化- overall change in a society from farm production and craftsmanship to mechanized manufacturing production.
Urbanization 都市化 - The move of people from farm to cities where job are available
mortality 死亡数,死亡率-death in population
immigration rate 迁移率- # of new arrivals in a country in a given year per 1000
Emigration rate # of ppl leaving a country in a given year per 1000
exponential rate a rapid rate of population growths as each generation doubles in size
natural increase population increase or decrease in a year expressed a % of the total population(birth rates - death rate)
rule of 70 the times it takes a country to double its population( 70 divided by the country's growth rate)
doubling time # of year it takes country to double its population at its current growth rate
net migration 迁移率
Migration 移居,迁徙( person who moves from one region to another)
life expectancy the average # of years an individual is expected to live平均寿命; 预期寿命
family planning the concept of limiting the size of families计划生育
rhythm method a method of birth controls.安全期避孕法
sterilization a procedure by which a person's ability to reproduce is destroyed绝育
vasectomy 输精管切除术
coercion 强迫; 高压政治- the use of force
contraception birth control-
total fertility rate 总生育率- the average # of children born over the lifetime of a typical woman in a particular country
one-child policy 计划生育政策(china)
infanticide the act of killing an infant(杀婴)
gender selection the choice of whether to keep a fetus based on its gender
population growth rate 人口增长率( natural increase + net migration)
dependency ratio 抚养比率(
dependency load the % of a population that is younger than 15 or older than 64 years of age
population distribution 人口分布- the pattern of where people live in an area
ecumene 世界上有人(适于人类)居住的部分 - populated area o the world
population density 人口密度- the # of people living in a given area( area divided the population)
population pyramid a bar graph that shows male and female population back at age interval of five years
age cohort 年龄队列,年龄群组
Neo -Malthusians people who share Malthus' pessimistic views regarding population growth.
carrying capacity 载流容量,承载能力 the maximum # of people that can be sustained by an environment
ecological footprint the impact of human on the environment生态足迹
cornucopian 丰富的 ppl who have optimistic view on population growth due to advances in science and technology
demographic regulation 人口调控 a theory
Ch 12 living standards
Infrastructure 基础设施.
Developed countries the world wealthiest countries( had well-established infrastructure and ppl are well-housed,healthy and have good literacy skilld)
Newly industrializing countries 新兴工业化国家 countries that r experiencing rapid economic and industrial growth
developing countries countries that have lower standard of living than developed countries
heavily indebted poor countries ( hipcs) 重债穷国 coun. at the low end of the UN human development index that r debt to developed nations
human development index 人类发展指数 - used to rank standards of living in its member count.
standard of living 生活标准-
literacy rate 识字率( the % of population that is able to read and write
GDP per capita 人均国内生产总值,人均國內生產總值 (all good and services produced in a country in 1 year)
non- governmental organizations(NGOs) 非政府间组织, 民间机构委员会
Millennium Development Goals( MDGs) 千年发展计划 ( 8 goals developed by the member states of the unite nation to close the gap in the living standards between developed and developing countries
mortality death rate, calculated as # of death per 1000 ppl in a population
malnutrition poor, lack of 营养不良
globalization the spread of idea,information and culture around the world through advances in communication..全球化,全球性
Multinational corporation ( MNCs) companies that do business is more than 1 country
world bank 世界银行 - provide financial, technical help developing countries
organization for economic co-operation and development(oced) 经济合作与发展组织 ,
bilateral aid 双边援助 assistance from 1 count. to another
Chapter 13 Environment
sustainable development a way to maintain economic growth without damaging the environment 可持续发展
earth summit a meeting of world leaders. held in pio de janeriro,brazil, in 1992, to discuss environment change
agenda 21 a statement of environmental action
herbicides substance used to kill plants 灭草剂
pesticides substance used to kill pests( ex. unwanted plants and animals) 杀害虫剂 ,农药
organic grown without chemical
co2 emission carbon dioxide emissions caused by burning of fossil fuels( largest contributor of global warming )
biodiversity 生物多类状态( having a variety of life forms)
ecotourism 生态旅游- tourism to threatened areas that tries to be low-impact and small scale
biosphere regions pf earth, made up of all the ecozones
stewardship 管事人之职位及职责; 管理工作 - careful management of resource
carrying capacity 载流容量- the largest population than an environment can support
deforestation 采伐森林
global warming the projected increase in the earth's average temperature due to burning of fossil fuels and deforestation
ecology 生态学; 社会生态学- the science concerned with the relationship between living things and their environment
acid precipitation 酸性降水
Created by: 100000389902786



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