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Psychology Ch.13

QuestionAnswer
theory that we seek to evaluate our abilities and beliefs by comparing them with those of others social comparison theory
outbreak of irrational behavior that is spread by social contagion mass hysteria
enhancement of performance brought about by the presence of others social facilitation
process of assigning causes to behavior attribution
tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional influences on other people's behavior fundamental attribution error
tendency of people to alter their behavior as a result of group pressure conformity
tendency of people to engage in uncharacteristic behavior when they are stripped of their usual identities deindividuation
emphasis on group unanimity at the expense of critical thinking groupthink
tendency of group discussion to strengthen the dominant positions held by individual members group polarization
group of individuals who exhibit intense and unquestioning devotion to a single cause cult
approach to convincing people to change their minds about something by first introducing reasons why the perspective might be correct and then debunking them inoculation effect
adherence to instructions from those of higher authority obedience
error of assuming that no one in a group perceives things as we do pluralistic ignorance
reduction in feelings of personal responsibility in the presence of others diffusion of responsibility
phenomenon whereby individuals become less productive in groups social loafing
helping others for unselfish reasons altruism
learning about psychological research can change real-world behavior for the better enlightenment effect
behavior intended to harm others, either verbally or physically aggression
form of indirect aggression, prevalent in girls, involving spreading rumors, gossiping, and nonverbal putdowns for the purpose of social manipulation relational aggression
belief that includes an emotional component attitude
personality trait that assesses the extent to which people's behavior reflects their true feelings and attitudes self-monitoring
unpleasant mental experience of tension resulting from two conflicting thoughts of beliefs cognitive dissonance
theory that we acquire our attitudes by observing our behavior self-perception theory
theory that we don't really change our attitudes, but report that we have so that our behavior appear consistent with our attidues impression management theory
persuasive technique involving making a small request before making a bigger one foot-in-the-door technique
persuasive technique involving making an unreasonably large request before making the small request we're hoping to have granted door-in-the-face technique
persuasive technique in which the seller of a product starts by quoting a low sales price, and then mentions all of the "add-on" costs once the customer has agreed to purchase the product low-ball technique
drawing negative conclusions about a person, group of people, or situation prior to evaluating the evidence prejudice
a belief, positive or negative, about the characteristics of members of a group that is applied generally to most members of the group stereotype
assumption that behaviors among individual members of a group are due to their internal dispositions ultimate attribution error
evolutionary principle that creates a predisposition toward distrusting anything or anyone unfamiliar or different adaptive conservatism
tendency to favor individuals within our group over those from outside our group in-group bias
tendency to view all individuals outside our group as highly similar out-group homogeneity
negative behavior toward members of out-groups discrimination
claim that prejudice arises from a need to blame other groups for our misfortunes scapegoat hypothesis
claim that our attributions and behaviors are shaped by a deep-seated assumption that the world is fair and all things happen for a reason just-world hypothesis
unfounded negative belief of which we're aware regarding the characteristics of an out-group explicit prejudice
unfounded negative belief of which we're unaware regarding the characteristic of an out-group implicit prejudice
educational classroom approach designed to minimize prejudice by requiring all children to make independent contributions to a shared project jigsaw classroom
theory that humans have a biologically based need for interpersonal connections need-to-belong theory
false stories repeated so many times that people believe them to be true urban legends
a worsening of performance in the presence of others; occurs on tasks we find difficult social disruption
enduring characteristics such as personality traits, attitudes, or intelligence dispositional influences
conclusion regarding factual evidence belief
we're more likely to believe something we've heard many times recognition heuristic
depth of our religious convinctions religiosity
the finding that we're more positively disposed toward people, places, or things that resemble us implicit egotism
we're more likely than chance to select people for friends/romantic interests whose names contain the first letters of our first or last names name letter effect
people who view religion as a means to an end (such as obtaining friends or gaining support) extrinsic religiousity
people for whom religion is deeply ingrained into their belief system intrinsic religiousity
Created by: rlhaas