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Arrhythmia Theory


What are the two major ions that are responsible for depolarization in the cardiac conduction system? sodium and potassium
What part of the heart is innervated by the Purkinje system? ventricles
What does the P wave represent? atrial depolarization
What is the major systemic problem for a patient with sinus tachycardia? increases cardiac workload
Name three causes of sinus tachycardia. anxiety, exercise, uncompensated heart failure, fever, thyrotxicosis, dehydration, hypovolemia, smoking.
Name two conduction slowing drugs which could cause sinus bradycardia. calcium channel blockers, beta blocker, Digoxin (lanoxin)
When should the patient with sinus bradycardia be treated? signs/symptoms of decreased CO, PVCs or rate < 50 bpm
Atropine should not be administered to patients who have either of which two problems? urinary retention or glaucoma
Name three potential causes of atrial arrhythmias. ETOH, anxiety, stress, electrolyte imbalance, COPD, hyperthyroidism, caffeine, nicotine, stimulants (meds.
What part of the nervous system is stimulated with vagal stimulation? parasympathetic
What is the purpose of Adenosine (Adenocard)? return to NSR
Synchronized cardioversion is used when the patient is _________. unstable - without pulses
what is the location of the paddles in cardioversion and defibrillation? apex and sternum or apex and posterior left chest
What is the purpose of the synchronizer? avoid the refractory period
A patietn with what arrhythmia whill have a pulse deficit? atrial fibrillation
What is the magic number in the treatment of atrial fibrillation? 48
What are the two options in the treatment of atrial fibrillation? rate control or conversion to NSR
Name two side effects of Amiodarone (Cordarone). bradycardia, hypotension
What is the purpose of a TEE prior to cardioversion? rule out atrial clots
What is the treatment where short bursts of energy interrupt atrial pathways or destroy tissue that causes abnormal electrical signals? radiofrequency catheter ablation
Name three negative aspects to the administration of Dabigatran (Pradaxa)? GI side effects, no antidote, high cost
What is the major treatment for Mobitz I (Wenkebach)? pacing
Name two symptoms of third degree heart block. dizziness, confusion, syncope
What drug can increase the heart rate of a person in complete heart block? Dopamine
When are epicardial pacemeakers used most frequently? cardiac surgery
What symptoms would the patient exhibit with los of capture from his pacemaker? dizziness, confusion, bradycardia, snycope
When does a synchronous pacemaker fire? when needed!
Name three causes of PVCs. hypokalemia, hypoxia, low magnesium, anesthesia, acid base imbalance, ischemia, digoxin toxicity
What is the maximum number of mEqs that cansafely be administered per hour? 10
What is the initial drug of choice for the treatment of PVCs? Amiodarone (Cordarone)
What is the treatment for the unstable (pulseless) patient in VT? defibrillation
What is the initial treatment for VF after identification of the rhythm and unresponsiveness and sending for help? CPR
What happens to brain cells when, in cardiac arrest, they are jolted by electricity and flooded with oxygen? the body kills them
What is the hallmark of PEA? rhythm without pulses
name three causes of PEA. hypovolemia, hypoxia, acidosis, hypo/hyperkalemia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, toxins, cardiac tamponade, tension pneumothorax, coronary or pulmonary thrombosis or trauma
Name three complications of pacemaker or ICD insertion. arrhythmias, pneumothrax, infection, hemmorhage, cardiac tamponade
Should a ptient with an ICD drive cross country? no
Should CPR be started on a patient with an ICD? yes
Should an AED be used by a babysitter on an eighteen month old child? no
Created by: PMZajac