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phenotype apperance or observable traits
Genotype genetic makeup
Allele alternative versions of a gene
Autosomes a chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex; not a sex chromosome
Recessive has no noticeable effect on the organism's apperance
Dominant determines the organism's appearance
Monohybrid heterozygous for one character
Dihybrid individuals heterozygous for two characters
Gamete transmit genes from one generation
Heterozygous organism that has 2 different alleles for a gene
Homozygous organism that has a pair of identical alleles for a character
Karyotype the resulting order that is displayed
Codominance two alleles both affect the phenotype in seperate, distinguishable ways
incomplete dominance neither allele is completely dominant, F1 hybrids have a phenotype between those two parental varieties.
Complete dominance when one allele shows dominance over another
Locus a specific place along the length of a chromosome where a given gene is located
Epistasis at gene at one locus alters the phenotypic expression of a gene at the second locus
polygenic inheritance an additive effect of two or more genes on a single phenotypic character
Multiple alleles most genes exist in more than two allelic forms, ABO blood types- IA, IB, i. (group) Person: (A, B, AB, O )
Pleiotropy multiple phenotypic effects.
Kinetochore a structure of proteins attached to the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle
Centrosome structure present in the cytoplasm of animal cells, important during cell division, functions as a micro-tubule organizing center; has two centrioles
Centromere the specialized region of the chromosome where two sister chromatids are most closely attached
Centriole a structure in the centrosome of an animal e composed of cylinders of microtubule triplets arranged in a 9+0 pattern. has a pair of centrioles
Germ cell specialized cells that form gametes
Zygote the diploid product of the union of haploid gametes during fertilization; a fertilized egg
Gamete a haploid reproductive cell, such as an egg or sperm. gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote
Haploid a cell containing only one set of chromosomes
Diploid a cell containing two sets of chromosomes, one set is inherited from each parent
Somatic Cell any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell
Sex cell egg or sperm
F1, F2,F3 generations 1.) the first filial, or hybrid, offspring in a series of genetic crosses 2.) Offspring resulting from interbreeding of the hybrid F1 3.) the result of the breeding of the F2 generation
Truebreeding Referring to plants that produce offspring of the same variety when they self-pollinate
advantage of sexual reproduction more genetic variation, and survival
mitosis I,P,P,M,A,T(C), 2 diploid daughter cells
meiosis sex cells, same process as mitosis but 2 stages (1 homologous chromosomes are separated but sisters stay together) (2 separate the sister chromatids,
if a cell cant pass a G1 checkpoint goes to G0 checkpoint; resting
Protein Kinase activates or inactivates proteins by adding a phosphate group, phosphorylation, changes the shape
X chromosome inactivation Barr Body, one chromosome in each female becomes inactivated during embryonic development
reciprocal chromosomal translocation flip genes between two chromosomes
Chromosomes replicated Gap 2 of interphase
DNA replicated S phase
Anchorage dependent to divide have to attach to a substratum
Density Dependent inhibition crowded cells stop replicating
Created by: Dev0325