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Chapter 8 Cellular Energy Review (Biology)

What waste product of photosynthesis is released to the environment during photosynthesis phase I? Oxygen
The internal membrane of the chloroplast that is organized into flattened membranous sacs Thylakoids
Light-absorbing molecules called ___ are found in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts Pigments
Location of the first phase of photosynthesis Thylakoid membrane
___ is essential for the light reactions because it is necessary for ATP synthesis Water
Enters the Calvin cycle to be joined with an existing carbon compound to form PGA Carbon dioxide
Is the predecessor of all carbohydrates and is formed during the Calvin cycle G3P
Must be regenerated so the Calvin cycle can continue another round RuBP
NADPH and ATP are not ____ enough for photosynthesis to end with the ETC Stable
Second phase of photosynthesis Calvin cycle
Enzyme which converts remaining G3P into RuBP at the end of the Calvin cycle Rubisco
Plants use the ___ formed during the Calvin cycle both as a source of energy and source of raw materials for growth and repair Sugars
Biologist who studies the chemical products of plants Phytochemist
Cannot make their own food... Heterotrophs
Have the ability to manufacture their own food... Autotrophs
Includes the citric acid cycle and the ETC; requires oxygen Aerobic respiration
Initial stage of glucose breakdown which occurs within the cell's cytoplasm Glycolysis
Process which does not require oxygen Anaerobic
Type of bacterium that is photosynthetic; autotroph Cyanobacterium
Glucose is broken down into G3P and then finally into ___ before the products are moved into the mitochondria to continue the process of cellular respiration Pyruvate
Glycolysis has a NET yield of ___ ATP 2
The Citric acid cycle is also known as the ____ Krebs cycle
A researcher who studies energy transfers in cells is known as a(n) ___ Bioenergist
Electrons move along the mitochondrial membrane from one ___ to another; with each arrival, energy is released Protein carrier
Final electron acceptor of the ETC during cellular respiration and produces water as a by-product Oxygen
The electron transport chain is located on the ___ Inner mitochondrial membrane
Glycolysis takes place in the ___ Cytoplasm
The citric acid cycle takes place in the ___ Mitochondrial matrix
ATP is formed when H+ move, down their concentration gradient, through ___ ATP synthase
Generates small amounts of ATP to sustain cellular processes while the body regains it's balance of oxygen Fermentation
Photosynthesis is a(n) ___ reaction; it stores energy Anabolic
Cellular respiration is a(n) ___ reaction; it releases energy Catabolic
The idea that energy cannot be created nor destroyed... 1st law of thermodynamics
All chemical reactions within a cell... Metabolism
Ability to do work... Energy
Series of chemical reactions in which the product of one reaction is the substrate for the next reaction... Metabolic pathway
Biological molecule that provides chemical energy... Adenosine triphosphate
Study of the flow and transformation of energy... Thermodynamics
Source of nearly all energy for life... Sunlight
Spontaneous increase in disorder or entropy.. 2nd law of thermodynamics
Organisms which get their energy from inorganic substances, such as hydrogen sulfide... Chemoautotrophs
Phase of photosynthesis in which energy is stored in glucose... Calvin cycle
Pathway(s) that help(s) plants photosynthesize while minimizing water loss include ___ and C4 CAM
Pathway that allows carbon dioxide to enter leaves only at night... CAM photosynthesis
Light-independent reactions... Calvin cycle
Organisms obtain energy in a process called... Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration harvests electrons from ____ such as glucose and uses that energy to make ATP Carbon compounds
Glucose is broken down into pyruvate... Glycolysis
How many TOTAL ATP molecules are produced from glycolysis of one molecule of glucose? 4
(T/F) The anaerobic pathway that follows glycolysis in the absence of oxygen is fermentation. T
(T/F) The hydrogen necessary in the electron transport chain comes from the splitting of CO2 molecules F
(T/F) Cellular respiration in eukaryotes is slightly more efficient than in prokaryotes F
(T/F) The Krebs cycle is sometimes called the Calvin cycle F
(T/F) Fermentation occurs in the mitochondria F
(T/F) Skeletal muscle produces lactic acid when the body cannot supply enough oxygen for it's demands T
(T/F) Alcohol fermentation is found in some bacteria and in some human cells F
(T/F) Two pyruvate molecules formed during glycolysis result in two citric acid cycles T
What do cells make and release as the main source of chemical energy? ATP
The breaking down of pyruvate occurs during the ___ Citric acid cycle
What are stacks of thylakoids called? Grana
What is the main product formed during light-independent reactions? Glucose molecules
Mechanism by which ATP is produced as a result of the flow of electrons down a concentration gradient; from the inside of the thylakoid to the stroma Chemiosmosis
Photosynthesis takes place in the ___ Chloroplasts
What does the 1st law of thermodynamics state? Energy is conserved
Autotrophs that convert light energy into chemical energy... Photoautotrophs
In lactic acid fermentation, ___ is converted to lactic acid Pyruvate
What chemical bond in ATP releases the massive amount of stored energy when broken? Phosphate
Created by: SavannahElkins