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N307 E2 MSK

N307 Musculoskeletal Assessment [Ch 22]

QuestionAnswer
Identify the 6 components of the musculoskeletal system. bones, joints, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, muscle
Identify the five functions of the musculoskeletal system. Support/stand erect; movement; protect inner vital organs; hematopoiesis; reservoir for storage of essential minerals
hematopoiesis the formation of blood cells in the living body (especially in the bone marrow)
Identify the 3 types of muscle. Which of these is our focus during the assessment? Skeletal (*focus); smooth; cardiac
flexion bending of a limb at a joint
extension straightening a limb at a joint to maximally increase its angle
abduction movement of a body part away from the body’s midline
adduction movement of a body part toward the body’s midline
pronation movement of the forearm to place the palm downward
supination movement of the forearm to place the palm upward
circumduction moving the arm in a circle around the shoulder
inversion movement of ankle inward
eversion movement of ankle outward
rotation movement of one bone turning on another or moving the head around a 
central axis
elevation raising a body part
depression lowering a body part
dorsiflexion movement of hand or foot upward
plantar flexion movement of food downward
protraction moving a body part forward and parallel to ground; away from vertebral column
retraction moving a body part backward and parallel to the ground, moves 
toward vertebral column
Identify the ethnicity that has decreased incidence of osteoporosis. African-Americans
Identify the ethnicities that have an increased incidence of osteoporosis. Chinese, Japanese, Inuits
At what age do we recommend a bone density test to a patient? 50 years old
Describe the pain associated with a fracture. Sharp pain that increases with movement
Identify the 4 possible reasons for swelling at a joint. Excess joint fluid, thickening of the synovial lining, inflammation of surrounding soft tissue, or bony enlargement
Identify the 4 deformities of a joint. Dislocation, subluxation, contracture, ankylosis
What does warmth and tenderness at a joint signal? Inflammation
Is palpable fluid normal or abnormal? Abnormal
If the patient is able to move the joint without any limitations, how do you document it? Full active ROM (range of motion)
If you observe a patient having difficulty performing range of motion, how do you document it? Passive ROM *CHECK
crepitation an audible and palpable crunching or grating that accompanies movement
How and when does crepitation occur? Occurs when articular surfaces in the joints are roughened, as with RA
What is articular disease and what s/s does it produce? inside the joint (e.g. arthritis) produces swelling/tenderness around entire joint affecting ROM in both active and passive motion
What is extra-articular disease and what s/s does it produce? Injury to specific tendon/ligament/nerve that produces swelling and tenderness to one spot in the joint; affects only certain planes of ROM, esp. during voluntary motion
Identify the 2 tests for carpal tunnel syndrome. Phalen's Test; Tinel's Sign
rheumatoid arthritis (RA) chronic, systemic inflammatory disease of joints and 
surrounding connective tissue; characterized by heat, redness, swelling, and 
painful motion of the affected joints
Describe the timing of pain for a patient with RA. Pain is worse in the morning, gets better throughout the day
osteoarthritis non-inflammatory, localized, progressive disorder involving
 deterioration of articular cartilages and subchondral bone, and formation of new bone at joint surfaces
Identify the clinical manifestation(s) of osteoarthritis. (5) Affected joints have stiffness, swelling, hard bony protuberances, pain with motion, limited motion
osteoporosis decrease in skeletal bone mass occurring when rate of bone resorption is greater than that of bone formation
atrophy loss of muscle mass
dislocated shoulder anterior dislocation (95%) exhibited as hollow where it would normally look round
joint effusion swelling from excess fluid in the joint capsule
Identify the clinical manifestation(s) of a person with a torn rotator cuff. characteristic “hunched” position and limited abduction of arm
gouty arthritis joint effusion or synovial thinking
Identify the clinical manifestation(s) of gouty arthritis. Redness, 
heat, soft, boggy or fluctuant fullness to palpation and limited ROM
Identify the medical term for tennis elbow. epicondylitis
epicondylitis chronic disabling pain at lateral epicondyle of humerus, radiates down extensor surface of forearm
ganglion cyst round, cystic, non-tender nodule overlying tendon sheath or joint capsule, usually on dorsum of wrist
Is a ganglion cyst malignant or benign? Benign
carpal tunnel syndrome atrophy occurs from interference with motor function 
due to compression of the median nerve inside the carpal tunnel, caused by 
chronic repetitive motion
syndactyly webbed fingers; congenital deformity
polydactyly extra fingers; congenital deformity
osgood schlatter disease painful swelling of the tibial tubercle just below the 
knee, due to repeated stress on the patellar tendon
Osgood schlatter disease is common in which sports participants? Soccer players and runners
gout metabolic disorder of disturbed purine metabolism, associated with elevated serum uric acid; primarily in men > 40 y/o
scoliosis curvature of the spine
Identify and describe the 2 types of scoliosis. Functional (flexible, apparent with standing, disappears w/ bending) and structural (fixed, curvature shows on standing and bending)
spina bifida incomplete closure of the posterior part of vertebrae results in a 
neural tube defect, usually occurs 4th week if gestation
If you hear crepitus while moving a patient's joint, the joint must be _______. synovial, a joint that is freely movable
A patient with kyphosis has ______. rounded back in the thoracic region
If your patient's arm drifts down after he extends it for 10 seconds, he probably has _______. shoulder-girdle weakness
Your patient cannot move his right arm away from his side, this is noted as impaired ______. impaired abduction
Pt complains of pain and tingling in her right wrist. During assessment, pt reports pain when the nurse flexes the wrist for 30 sec. This indicates _______. carpal tunnel syndrome via Phalen's test
Created by: nikkirosety