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N307 E2 Breasts

N307 Breast Assessment [Ch 17]

QuestionAnswer
What area of the breasts are most masses found? tail of Spence
gynecomastia enlarged breast tissue in males, usually temporary and unilateral
What type of family history increases a person's risk for breast cancer? Mother, sister, or daughter having breast cancer
Does a monthly breast self-exam prevent breast cancer? Breast self-exams do NOT prevent disease; only helps for early detection
When should a woman who is still menstruating perform a breast self exam? Why? 4-7 days after period; it is a period of time with the least amount of hormones
When should menopausal or pregnant woman perform a breast self exam? Anytime of the month; best to stick to the same day monthly
For women ages 20-39, when should they perform a BSE and get a CBE? Monthly BSE and CBE every 3 years
What is cyclic pain? Breast pain realated to menstrual cycle
What is mastalgia? What does it occur with? (4) Breast pain that occurs with trauma, inflammation, infection, and benign breast disease
Why do you palpate the breasts? Check for lumps
Identify the 3 methods for palpating breasts. 3 patterns: Vertical strip, spokes-on-a-wheel, concentric-circles
What could cause lymph nodes to enlarge? (4) Local infection of the breasts, arms, or hand, and with breast cancer metastases
For women over 40, what are the recommendations for BSE, CBE, and mammograms? Perform BSE, with an annual mammogram and an annual CBE conducted close to the same time
What does CBE stand for? Clinical breast exam
supernumerary nipple an extra nipple along the embryonic “milkline” on the thorax and abdomen is a congenital findingsupe
What condition gives the skin and orange peel book? Edema; the orange-peel look is called peau d'orange
Why is it important to distinguish between a recently retracted nipple then from on the has been diverted for years? Recent nipple retraction signifies acquired disease
How do you screen for breast retraction? (3) (1) Lift arms slowly over head; (2) put hands on hips; (3) Push palms together
What are possible causes for breast retraction? Fibrosis in the breast tissue, usually caused by growing neoplasms
neoplasm new and abnormal growth of tissue in some part of the body, esp. as a characteristic of cancer
nulliparous of, relating to, or being a female that has not borne offspring
Describe the breast tissue in nulliparous women. Firm, smooth, elastic
What signs indicate inflammation in non-lactating and non-postpartum breasts? Heat, redness, swelling
Premenstrual engorgement is normal from ________. Increasing progesterone
Excect in _____ and ______, discharge is abnormal. pregnancy and lactation
What should you note about discharge? (5) Amount of discharge droplets, quadrant(s) producing them, color, presence of blood, consistency
What is the bimanual technique and who is it used for? Use bimanual technique for large breasts; Sitting up-right, lean forward, palpate breast against supporting hand
Identify the 10 characteristics you should note about a lump. Location, size, shape, consistency, movable, distinctness, nipple status, skin, tenderness, lymphadenopathy
premature thelarche early breast development with no other hormone-dependent signs
At what stage is a mass almost always a benign fibroadenoma or a cyst? Maturing adolescents
fibroadenoma benign and movable and firm and non-tender tumor of the breast
cyst in the body, a membranous sac or cavity (of abnormal character) containing fluid
Females older than _____ have an increased risk for breast cancer. 50 years old
How would you document the location of a breast lump? Use breast as a clock and describe distance from nipple (e.g. 2:00, 2 cm from nipple)
About ____ percent of women have some form of benign breast disease. 50%
Why aren't mammograms recommended for females in their 20-30s? Younger females have more dense breast tissue, older age thins the breast tissue
Cancer causes fibrosis, which ____________, thus causing the dimpling. contracts suspensory ligaments
peau d'orange (lymphatic obstruction produces edema, exaggerating the hair follicles giving the orange peel look
Identify the 6 diagnostic categories for benign breast disease. (1) swelling and tenderness; (2) mastalgia, (3) nodularity; (4) dominant lumps; (5) nipple dishcarge; (6) infection, inflammation
duct ectasia lactiferous duct becomes blocked or clogged
mastitis inflammatory, tender, red, hard mass; usually an infection or stasis 
of a plugged duct during breastfeeding
A lump larger than _____ is a sign of breast cancer. > 1 cm
Round/oval lump is _______. Irregular/jagged/star-shaped is ______. Round/oval lump is BENIGN. Irregular/jagged/star-shaped is MALIGNANT.
Identify if the following is a benign or malignant: soft mass. Benign
Identify if the following is a benign or malignant: soft-firm mass. Malignant
Identify if the following is a benign or malignant: movable. Benign
Identify if the following is a benign or malignant: not movable. Malignant
Identify if the following is a benign or malignant: > 1 cm. Malignant
Identify if the following is a benign or malignant: recent nipple retraction. Malignant
Identify if the following is a benign or malignant: distinct borders. Benign
Identify if the following is a benign or malignant: growing lump. Malignant
Identify if the following is a benign or malignant: multiple lumps. Benign
Identify if the following is a benign or malignant: single lump. Malignant
Identify if the following is a benign or malignant: skin retraction. Malignant
Identify the 7 s/s of mastitis. Headache, malaise, fever, chills, sweating, increased pulse, flu-like symptoms
Most malignant breast cancers occur in this region of the breast: ________. Upper outer quadrant
Normal changes in the breasts of premenstrual women include _______. tenderness, soft, mobile cysts
Where is the tail of Spence located? Upper outer quadrant, toward the axilla
Gynecomastia occurs in ________ because the liver is unable to metabolize estrogens. liver cirrhosis
Created by: nikkirosety