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Schedule of Reinforcement rule specifying which occurrences of a given behavior, if any, will be reinforced
Continuous Reinforcement (CRF) every correct response is reinforced; fast learning & fast extinction
Intermittent Reinforcement Only some correct responses are reinforced; slow learning & slow extinction
Aquisition Phase Behavior is being conditioned or learned
Maintence Phase Behaivor has become well-learned
Free-Operant Procedure (2) Individual is "free" to respond repeatedly
Fixed-ratio (FR) Reinforcement occurs with a fixed number of responses, high response followed by a pause, initially high rate of responding during extinction, high resistance to extinction
Advantages of Intermittent Reinforcement (4) 1. Reinforcer remains effective longer 2. take longer to extinguish 3. work more consistently 4. likely to persist in natural environment
Ratio Strain deterioration of responding from increasing an FR schedule too rapidly
Variable-ratio (VR) # of responses unpredictable from one to next, high steady response, little post-reinforcement phase,
Fixed - Ratio (FR) schedule Reinforcement occurs each time a set number of responses of a particular type is emitted
Differences between FR and VR VR increase faster the FR w/o ratio strain, VR lasts longer, VR has a higher resistance to extinction and FR
FI & VI are based on TIME
VR & FR are based on # of responses
Fixed Interval (FI) The first response after a fixed amount of time following the previous reinforcement is reinforced, no limit on how long after the end of the interval a response can occur in orderto be reinforced
FI Schedules produce: Behavior increases near the end of time until a reinforcement is given; Post-reinforcement pause
Post Reinforcement Pause The higher the value of reinforcer the longer the pause
Variable-Interval (VI) The length of the interval changes unpredictably
Length of VI schedule vary around some mean value
Why aren't simple interval schedules used often? FI produces long post-reinforcement pauses, VI generates lower response rates than ratio schedules, requires continuous monitoring of B after each interval
Fixed Duration (FD) the period is fixed
Variable Duration (VD) interval changes unpredictably
Duration Schedule of reinforcement reinforcement after behavior for a continuous period of time
When can you use Duration Schedule? only when target behavior can be measured continuously
Concurrent Schedule of reinforcement Schedule of reinforcement that are in effect at any time
Pitfalls of Intermittent Reinforcement doing it wrong, introducing intermittent schedule too quickly, schedule is too hard to follow
Herrnsteing's (1961) matching law The response rate or the time devoted to an activity in a concurrent schedule is propotional to the rate of reinforcement of that activity rather than the rates o other concurrent activites
Differential Reinforcment of Low Rates (DRL) Reinforcing only low rates of responding
Limited Responding DRL Maximum number of allowable responses during an interval
Example of Limited Responding DRL Blurting max of 3 times
Limited is useful when some of the behavior is tolerable, less is better
Spaced-Responding DRL No behavior for interval, then after interval passed, behavior is reinforced; Behavior spaced over time; little is desirable
Differential Reinforcement of Zero Responding (DRO) Reinforcer presented only if response does not occur within an interval
How to use a DRO if response occurs, start over;
Differential reinforcement of other responding reinforcement of any other behavior
in DRO Length of interval increased gradually until: behavior is little or none; minimum amount of reinforcement is given for nonoccurence
Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Responding (DRI) two behaviors that are not compatible; reinforce incompatible response
Differential Reinforcement of Alternate Behavior (DRA) allows the strengthening of a desirable behavior while decreasing the likelihood of undesirable behavior.
Example of DRI Bubble mouth and talking (Can't do both)reinforce not talking
Example of DRA if the challenging behavior is disruption in the classroom, the alternative behavior might be hand-raising
Example of DRO reinforcer if child doesn't suck thumb for 60 seconds
Example of DRL Calling out correct answers in class is reinforced if it only occurs once every 15 minutes
Situations in which behaviors occur are analyzed in terms of ABC Antecedent Stimuli, Behavior, Consequences
Antecedent Stimuli Stimuli that exist just prior to behavior
Stimulus Control Degree of correlation between a stimulus and subsequent response
Good or effective stimulus control High correlation
Stimulus Discrimination Learn to emit specific behavior in presence of some stimuli and not in presence of other stimuli
Stimulus Discrimination Training Process of teaching stimulus discriminations
Controlling Stimuli Stimuli that control behavior due to reinforcement in their presence and extinction in their absence
SD Disctiminative stimuli
Discriminative Stimulus for Extinction (S-delta) Response has been extinguished only in the presence of a particular stimulus; cue that won't work
Discriminative Stimulus for Reinforcement (SD) response has been reinforced only in the presence of a particular stimulus; cue that it will work
Stimulus Generalization transfer of a response learned to one stimulus to a similar stimulus
Effective Stimulus Discrimination Training Choose distinct signals; minimize errors; maximize number of trials; rules speed up learning
Created by: 100001361343670