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5.1 and 5.2 review notes/Study Guide-2013/14

What are valance electrons? electrons in the outer most energy level that have the highest energy
Which electrons are responsible for bonding? valence electrons
What makes an atom stable? Having a full outer shell (most need 8 valence electrons)
What is a chemical bond? the force of attraction holding atoms together
What happens when a bond is formed? 1. electrons can be transferred from one to another. 2. Electrons can be shared between atoms
What are the most reactive metals and where are they on the periodic table? Alkali metals in group 1.
How do alkali metals react? lose one electron
How do alkaline earth metals react? lose 2 electrons
Where are the most reactive nonmetals and what are they called? halogens located in group 17
How do halogens react? gain one electron
What is an ion? an atom that has gained or lost electrons; an electrically charged atom
If an atom loses an electron, what is its charge? positive
If an atom gains an electron, what is its charge? negative
What is a negative ion called? anion
What is a positive ion called? cation
What is an ionic bond? bond between two ions of oppositive charge
What charge does an ionic compound have? neutral (the positive and negative balance/equal each other out)
What is the small number written to the right and just below the atomic symbol? subscript
When you have an ionic compound, which ion is written first? the metal, which is the cation, which is the positive ion because it lost electrons (it lost its negative!)
What does stable mean? not likely to react
When are H and He stable? when they have 2 valence electrons
When can a new or different substance form? in chemical reactions when bonds are broken and new bonds are formed
Explain the reactivity of metals on the periodic table decreases from left to right from top to bottom down each group
Explain the reactivity of metals in groups 1 and 2 increases from top to bottom down each group
What is the most reactive element, which group is it found in? Fluorine, group 17
How do atoms with 5, 6, or 7 valence electrons become more stable? by gaining electrons
How do atoms with 1, 2, or 3 valence electrons become more stable? by losing electrons
How do atoms with 4 valence electrons become more stable? sometime gain or sometimes lose, depending on the situation
What is a chemical formula? combination of atomic symbols and subscript to show the ratio of atoms in the compound
What information does the subscript give you? the ratio of atoms of the elements in the compound
When naming ionic compounds, what is listed first? the metal or cation
When naming ionic compounds, what is listed second and given an "ide" ending? the nonmetal or anion
If no subscript is written, what is it understood to be? one
When naming compounds with polyatomic ions, which is listed first? positive polyatomic ion
When naming compounds with polyatomic ions, which is listed second? negative polyatomic ion with its ending of -ide or -ate
Name properties of ionic compounds. hard, brittle, crystals, high melting points, conduct electricity when melted or dissolved in water
What is a crystal? orderly, 3D arrangement of ions in a regular, repeating pattern
Why are ionic compounds hard and brittle? every ion is attracted to every other ion of the opposite charge around it so the compound is held very tightly and is very strong
Why do ionic compounds have high melting points? because ionic bonds are strong, a lot of energy is needed to break the bond. A lot of energy has to be added, hence the high melting point
What is electric current? a flow of charged particles (electrons)
Why do ionic compounds in solid form not conduct electricity while ionic compounds in liquid form do conduct electricity? in a solid form, ions are not free to move. If the ions can't move, the charged particles can't flow
What is the oxidation number? an atom's ionic charge
How is the oxidation number determined? from the number of valence electrons that are gained or lost
What is the Octet rule? when bonding, all atoms either gain or lose electrons so they end up with the electron configuration of the nearest noble gas
What are Lewis Structures? dot diagrams, a simplified what to show how the valence electrons are arranged in the outer shell when chemical reactions take place
How can you determine how many dots are in each element? the number of electrons in the outer shell or look at the group number on the periodic table ( example: group 13, 3 valence electrons
Created by: mtnbrook