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Final Review

Did the Greeks know the earth was round? Aristotle did because (1)the way the coulds move (2)north star (3) eclipse of the moon
boreal forests: where? CA? why? plant adaptations? conservation? Canada, russia/siberia; Sequoia; The ground doesn't freeze for as long as in tundras; Conifers (cone bearing, needles), sequois'a cones only open in fire, grounds burn like a cigarette, crown fires caused by lack of frequent fires (suppressed fires); OK
temperate deciduous forests: where? CA? why? plant adaptations? conservation? Eastern US, western europe, china, japan, new zealand; No; Winter cold, summer hot, arctic/tropical contrast; Hard woods, flowering plants, no fires; OK
Temperate grassland: where? CA? why? plant adaptations? conservation? Midwest US (prairies), Stepps Russia, Pompas (of Argentina); Yes; Mountains, cold winter and warm summer, mountain rainshadow; Perennial and annual grassland, annual roots small, perennial roots deep, fire important; Bad
Mediterranean Shrub: where? CA? why? plant adaptations? conservation? Mediterranean, ca, central chile, south africa, australia (symmetry); Yes; Summer hot, winter cold, cold water currents; Shrubs, plants adapted, fires very important; OK to bad, lots of development
Desert (hot/cold): where? CA? why? plant adaptations? conservation? Sahara, australia, ca/Gobi, iran; Yes/No; Less than 50 cm of annual rain, rainshadows; Succulent, thorns, annuals/No succulent, perennials, no fires; OK
Tropical rainforest: where? CA? why? plant adaptations? conservation? Amazon, congo, southeast asia; No; rainshadows at high altitudes, ITCZ; Tall forests, roots shallow, tree diversity, epiphyte; OK
Tropical Savannas: where? CA? why? plant adaptations? conservation? Brazil, venezuela, parts of india, australia; No; rainshadows (precipitation is higher than desert (50-100 cm); Grasslands, Scattered trees, fires part of one year cycle that maintains ecosystem
5 places where Mediterranean shrubs are CA, Mediterranean, central Chile, South Africa, Australia
Epiphyte plant that lives on another plant
How are Mediterranean plants adapted to fire? The seeds won't open without it
Megafauna large animals, over 100 lbs, mammoth, extinct
Paul Martin Munch Hypothesis overkill hypothesis, with the coldening atmosphere humans migrated south and encountered animals who weren’t afraid of humans because they didn’t know they had to be
New Zealand 1,000 years ago They had wombats 2,000 lbs, kangaroos 2,000 lbs, marsupial wolf, koala the size of a bear, humans hunted them into extinction, moa had 8 foot long drumstick and no wings
Island Gigantism and Dwarfism Gigantism: mammoth, kamoda dragon, get bigger to surive. Dwarfism: deers in Florida, get smaller to survive
Population throughout history 1650: 0.5 billion, 1820: 1 billion, 1930 (grandparents): 2 billion, 1975: 4 billion, 2000: 6 billion, 2013: 7 billion
Coffee: Where? Grown? Impact? Highlands of Ethiopia, brazil; grows in latitudinal branch; Good (shade coffee-planted in the shade of trees which allows animals to still live in area, natural pests help curb erosion) Bad (crops exposed, lots of erosion)
rubber tree: Where? Grown? Impact? Brazil; Can't have monoculture because of fungus so must be protected by other trees; Excellent in brazil, bad where monoculture
orange: Where? (citrus) China
Coco: Where? Grown? Andes; First in calories, protein, carbohydrates and fiber when compared to 50 other plants, decriminalized, rich in calcium, phosphorous, iron, vitamin A and E
Oaks: What did the California Indians use acorns for? Acorns were primary food source, leach with water in stream and basket to remove tannins (wine) then heated with rocks for mush; wood used for bows
Manzanita: What did the California Indians use acorns for? poor hot water over berries to make cider; wood used for bows
Elderberry: What did the California Indians use acorns for? brewed flowers for fevers, upset stomach and flu; rich source of vitamin c; stem used for arrow shaft and flutes; raw berry can cause nausea but dried or cooked are ok
Laurel Sumac: What did the California Indians use acorns for? leaves used for mosquito repellent; Lemonade Berry has berries that are soaked and hairs removed to make pink lemonade
Toyon, Christmas Berry: What did the California Indians use acorns for? red berries not edible, but if properly prepared can be used for flour; gave hollywood its name although its not a holly but a rose
Yucca, Our Lords Candle: What did the California Indians use acorns for? the leaves are strong and used for water proof baskets; leaves used as needle and thread to make clothes and homes; roots used for soap
Cactus: What did the California Indians use acorns for? red fruits are edible but watch for very small spines, green leaf can be cooked and eaten (commonly still done today)
Willow: What did the California Indians use acorns for? leaves used to make aspirin, indians would chew them for toothaches
California Buckeye: What did the California Indians use acorns for? seeds ground into fine dust and put in stream to catch fish
Natives perennial, evergreen, bunch grass
Exotics Annuals, europe
vernal pools hard pan, very pretty before they dry up, important for endemic species
tallest tree Redwood; today 96% cut, 4% left, 2% private, 2% federal or state
largest tree Sequoia
oldest tree Bristle Cone Pine; 4,700 years
Why tropical forests have been lost over the last 50 years Subsistence agriculture, commercial agriculture, forest fires in the tropics, fuelwood, timber, living fences (good!)
Subsistence agriculture you grow stuff for yourself in order to survive
Commercial Agriculture when selectd crops are planted specifically for profit
Forest fires in the tropics tropical rainforests are not adapted to fires; agricultural frontier
Fuel Wood important especially in areas with no electricty; living fences
Timber teak form southeast asia
Living fences when you select a tree and intentionally plant it along a street which makes it very accesible for firewood and fruit
bison one fo few megafauna left; better than cattle because adapted to winter, small hooves
types of coral reefs fringe reef, barrier reef, patch reef
origin of reefs island volcanic, fringing reef, evolves into barrier reef after thousands of years of erosion form volcano, atoll (only barrier reef is left, island gone), seamound (both island and reefs are gone and a small underground mountain is left
where are coral reefs? N30° to S30°, water temperatures between 65°F to 91°F, clear water, shallow for light (<100m), globally cover 36,000 square miles (size of British Columbia)
3 Countries with greatest length of coral reefs Philippines, Indonesia, Fiji
diversity of coral reefs 1,000 species of hard corals
where is there the most diversity? Indonesia, 450 species
what is coral? both plants and animals, 200 million polyp, zooxanthellae
polyp very soft, seethrough, secrete calcium, have tenticles, need oxygen and nutrients
zooxanthellae brown algae that lives in the tentacles, needs carbon dioxide and ammonia (our fertilizer that we discrete)
conservation of coral 1/10 destroyed, 1/3 degraded, 3/4 will be degraded in next 50 years
what damages corals? fishing, sediment runoff, coral bleaching, tourism
what is the world's largest revenue generating business? tourism
vacation relax, stay for a week or two, safe and organized trip
travel time to learn abouth your interests, 1 to 3 months, hard work (not fun, buses), stay at local hotels, walking and siteseeing
Baja California last frontier (virign, no water, no american); Norhtern part: Mediterranean, pine forests; Central part: desert, incredible, sea of cortez; South Part: tropic of cancer, tropical forest and coral reefs
Rules of Baja (1) buy insurance, (2) after border, look for "Enseñada Beaches", (3) no driving at night [most important], (4) no drugs, no guns, (5) Federalis! "can you pay the judge for me?" (6) camp anywhere, (7) always fill up in Cativina (8) stay to the right when
warm currents the gulf stream, are generally blue, not rich in fish, are not very productive resources
cold currents the California current, green color, rich in fish, (3 most important differences from warm currents) have lots of oxygen and nutrients, and are productive
kelp beds and kelp forests equivalent to coral reefs, brown algae, needs hard substrate (won't attach to sand)
what relies on kelp? 1000 species
plankton Phytoplankton: plants so small you can't even see it; Zooplankton: animals, eggs, juvenile organisms
sea otter were completely extinct in 1860, they ate sea urchins which helped control kelp growth, when sea otter reappeared in 1920 kelp regrew
fishing history 40% of population lives 100km from coast, 3 stages: (1) indigenous fishing common 300 years ago (2) colonial period, 300 years ago to 1940, whales were hunted (3) international fishing fleets: came after WWII
hook and line: what fish? impact? Catch all fish and return ones you don't want; Not bad
long lining: what fish? impact? Strung behind boat with separate hooks; Swordfish and tuna; Bad because it reduces density and size of fish
purse seine nets: what fish? impact? Salmon, tuna, kills dolphins because it keeps them from getting oxygen, sea turtles were caught in the nets too; Bad
Bottom trawling Takes absolutely no intelligence; Flunder, shrimp; 25% of any catch you don't want
pot fishing: what fish? impact? you get on a boat and there's all these pots with bait in them and they sink to the bottom of the floor; Crab; Closely monitored
Fish farming: what fish? impact? Salmon, shrimp; salmon put in pens and fed fish food, shrimp are put in ponds, feed made up of other fish, shrimp farms destroy mangroves which are ideal habitats for lots of fish
pleistocene 18,000 to 2.1 million years ago, "iceage", glaciers extended all the way down to Wisconsin called "The Wisconsin"
formation of pleistocene Ice sheets (water is locked up), Land bridges (Beringia cross from north Siberia to Alaska, Indonesia), Vegetation shifts (north to south, up and down mountain ranges)
How do we know the temperatures over the last 850,000 years? ice corps, sediment cores, tree cores
ice cores isotope, oxygen 16, look at ratios through ice core, less oxygen 16 when hot
sediment cores pollen is deposited at the bottom of lakes over the last million years, called varve
tree cores temperature and precipitation shown in rings, small rings=little rain
sangamonian temperatures were 1° warmer than today
What evidence is there that global warming is occuring? increasing temperature gauges, greenland and antarctica are melting, sea level rising
what is the human impact of global warming? greenhouse gases (increased CO2)
OPEC nations and if democracy Algeria (NO), Indonesia (YES), Iran (SEMI), Irag (YES), Kuwait (NO), Libya (NO), Nigeria (YES), Qatar (NO), Saudi Arabia (NO), Venezuela (NO)
Air pollution in US 1/2 of all air pollution comes from cars, US has 200 million cars (8 million in LA)
photochemical smog hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxide, sun chemical smog, thermal inversion layer
manufactured gases chlorofluorocarbons (CFC, hairspray), releases chlorine which breaks up O3, can do it 100 to 100,000 times
ozone theories (1) no hole (2) hole, is still getting bigger (3) hole, getting smaller (4) no consensus
Kyoto protocol scientist believe temp will increase in next 100 years, reduce levels of emision by 29% by 2010, no US
Arnold CA follows protocol, more stringent, clean burning cars, increase renewable energy by 2%, million solar homes
renewable energy uses hydropower, biomass fuel, geothermal, wind energy, solar energy
hydropower (good and bad) 47%; Cheap, lots of electricty; all dams have lifetime warranty, sediment buildup, changes water temperature
biofuels (good and bad) 45%; Burns cleaner; requires a lot of energy, corn
geothermal (good and bad) 5%; Extremely renewable; You have to dig deep, lava
wind energy (good and bad) 2%; Fastest growing; Dead migratory birds, storing energy
solar energy (good and bad) 1%; Free, no moving parts, roofs; need big area the size of Arizona; installation expenxive, storing energy
NRDC (address) Natural Resources Defense Council, 1314 2nd Street, LEEDs building
SMURF Santa Monica Urban Runoff Facility, costs $9 milion, cleans urban runoff water, 500,000 gallons each day
GIS Geographic Information System, vector data
vector data points=nodes, lines=arc, area=polygon
remote sensing no direct physical contact, in electromagnectic spectrum collect from violet to thermal infared
raster data one pixel=grid cell
Wavelength UV, Visible, Infra, Thermal, Microwaves, Radiowaves
passive sensors the sun sends the image
active sensors the satellite sends the image, can go through clouds
when and why was the LA river channelized? 1980s because the river meanders
how can the LA River be both healthy and protected from floods? create green space around the river
Created by: katydid