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normal flora microorganisms that live on the skin, in the nasopharynx, in the GI tract, and on other body surfaces
Interferon a nonspecific chemical inhibitor that is secreted by body cells in response to viral invasion
granulocytes polymorphonuclear cells that contain granules of digestive enzymes
agranulocytes mononuclear cells that lack digestive enzymes
antigens foreign particles, such as microbes, that enter a host
antibodies convey specific resistance to many bacterial and viral infections
complement system series of proteins found in the bloodstream
vaccination process of injecting weakened or killed organisms into a person, stimulating antibody production
opportunistic take advantage of being in the right place at the right time
anaerobes organisms requiring reduced oxygen for growth, associated with serious infections
endotoxins particularly potent poisons that can cause hemorrhagic shock when large amounts are released in to the blood
communicable period time frame during which a disease can be passed from one person to another
purulent containing puss
abscess occurs when the body attempts to localize infection by walling off the purulent drainage
leukocytosis a rise in circulating WBC's above the normal adult range of 5,000-10,000 cells/mm
shift to the left leftward shift in the granulocytic differential count
neutropenia present and poses a significant risk for infections when the ANC falls to fewer than 1,000 cells/mm
superinfection secondary infection that occurs when antibiotics, immunosuppression, or cancer treatment destroys normal flora
micturition word to describe the process of excreting urine from the body
diuresis water excretion
hydronephrosis distention of the kidney pelvis with urine secondary to the increased resistance caused by obstruction to normal urine flow
cystocele protrusion or herniation of the bladder into the vaginal canal
diuretics administered to increase urine output
dysuria painful voiding
polyuria formation and excretion of excessive amounts of urine in the absence of a concurrent increase in fluid intake
oliguria formation and excretion fo decreased amounts of urine, or urinary output less than 500mL in 24 hours
anuria formation and excretion of less than 100mL of urine in 24 hours
overactive bladder frequency and urgency often occur together
nocturia voiding during normal sleeping hours
hematuria blood in the urine
pyuria urine contains pus, which is the accumulation of the end products of an inflammatory response
urinary retention inability to empty the bladder of urine
urinary incontinence involuntary loss of urine from the bladder
peristalsis propels the intestinal contents along the entire length of the small and large intestines
meconium partially dried intestinal secretions that accumulated in the large intestine before birth
stoma the portion of intestine brought through the abdominal wall is known as
hemorrhoids enlarged or varicose viens in the anal canal
colostomyf- bowel diversion surgery that brings a segment of the large colon out to the abdominal skin
ileostomy portion of the ileum is used to make the stoma on the abdomen
constipation consistency of the stool (hard) necessity to strain with defecation
fecal impaction accumulation of hardened feces in the rectum
diarrhea manifested by frequent evacuation of watery stools
C-diff most common cause of hospital acquired diarrhea in the US
Flatus accumulation of gas in the GI tract
distention accumulation of excessive amounts of flatus or liquid or solid intestinal contents
borborygmi large bowel sounds
paralytic ileus condition in when the intestines are temporally paralyzed
Created by: 691650210