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Pers Psych.

Quiz 5

Cognition General term referring to awareness & thinking, as well as to specific, mental acts such as perceiving, attending to, interpreting, remembering, believing, judging, deciding, & anticipating.
Information Processing What all of those mental behaviors add up to, or the transformation of sensory input into mental representations & the manipulation of such representations. Does green look the same to everyone?
Three levels of cognition: Perception Process of imposing order on the information our sense organs take in. Two people can perceive the world very differently.
Three levels of cognition: Interpretation The making sense of, or explaining, various events in the world. (Getting speeding ticket & being asked "How did this happen?" The police officer just needed to pull someone over, I didn't do anything wrong."
Three levels of cognition: Conscious goals The standards that people develop for evaluating themselves and others. Ppl develop specific beliefs about what is important in life and which tasks are appropriate to pursue.
Field dependence If the participant adjusts the rod so that it is leaning in the direction of the tilted frame, then that person is said to be dependent on the visual field.
Field independence Participants disregard the external cues and, instead, use information from their bodies in adjusting the rod to upright. They appear to rely on their own sensations, not the perception of the field, to make the judgment.
Rod & Frame Test (RFT) Developed by Witkin. Participant sits in a dark room & is instructed to watch a glowing rod surrounded by a square frame, which is also glowing. Experimenter can adjust tilt of rod, frame & partic. chair. They must adjust dial so rod perfectly upright.
Locus of control? Concept that describes a person's perception of responsibility for the events in his or her life. Whether people tend to locate that responsibility internally or externally in fate, luck or chance. How does a person get good grades, luck or smart?
External locus of control expectancies Events are outside of one's control
Internal locus of control expectancies Events are under one's control and that one is responsible for the major outcomes in life.
Learned helplessness A way in which people interpret the world. Seligman, experiment with dogs being shocked when could have jumped over the ledge & had been safe from shock. Since kept failing, accepted the shocks after awhile.Style of inter. influenced by causal attribution
Perceived environment of field dependent person Pay attention to visual cues
Perceived environment of field independent person Rely on own sensations not the perception of the field to make judgement.
External vs. Internal External- Optimistic. "I can't wait to leave for college, my family is crazy!" Internal- Pessimistic. "It's my fault, I need to take care of my family."
Stable vs. Unstable Unstable (temporary)-Optimistic. "My boyfriend broke up with me b/c he needs time to study. That's ok!" Stable-Pessimistic. "My boyfriend broke up with me b/c he hates me. Who would like me?"
Global vs. Specific Global-Pessimistic. "Since one bad thing happened, my whole world is about to crash down." Specific-Optimistic. "I failed this test. This doesn't mean that it was affect myself getting into graduate school."
Pessimistic Explanatory Style A person at risk for feelings of helplessness and poor adjustment is one that is: internal, stable, and global causes for bad events.
Optimistic Explanatory Style Emphasizes: external, unstable (temporary), and specific causes for events.
Albert Bandura's concept of self-efficacy Refers to the belief that one can execute a specific course of action to achieve a goal. "I will get an 'A' in the class."= High self-efficacy. Can be effected by modeling- seeing others engage in performance w/ positive results.
How does self-efficacy influence performance on goals? Having high self-efficacy is usually correlated with positive results. Having low self-efficacy is usually correlated with negative results. Again, modeling is influential to self-efficacy.
How is an achievement view of intelligence different from an aptitude (natural ability to do something) view? Achievement view of intelligence- Educational attainment, how much knowledge a person has acquired compared to others. Aptitude view of intelligence- Ability to become educated, as the ability or aptitude to learn.
What is (g) general intelligence? Earlier in studies, thought as property of individual (in trait-like terms). Thought to differ in how much intelligence they possessed.
Positive illusions & "Healthy narcissism" Part of being happy. Inflated view of one's own characteristics as a good, desirable person, even if not entirely true.
Ekman's six basic emotions for universal facial expressions Anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, surprise.
Does happiness lead to positive outcomes or do positive outcomes lead to happiness? Happiness leads to, or at least comes before, positive outcomes in many areas of life.
Reciprocal causality Refers to the idea that causality can flow in both directions. Example, happy ppl are more likely to help others who are in need.
Is happiness affected by gender? In US, women diagnosed twice as much with depression as men. Men twice as likely to become alcoholics than women. Thorough studies show equal satisfaction in men & women with their lives.
Is happiness more likely to occur among people of a certain age? What types of factors are important for happiness at different stages? Circumstances that make ppl happy change with age. ie, financial security & health- happy later in life. Success at work, school, relationships=happy early in life. Inglehart concluded no evidence which said time of life is happier than other.
What factors accounted for differences in happiness and life satisfaction among different ethnicities? African Americans report roughly the same amount of happiness as European Americans & both lower levels of depression. Disadvantaged social groups maintain happiness by valuing talents & blaming problems on events outside of control.
What factors accounted for differences in happiness and life satisfaction among different countries? Rights they provide for citizens. The poorer, the unhappier. Population density and cultural homogeneity= minor correlations with well-being.
How strongly correlated extraversion and neuroticism correlates with one another Extraversion= positive affect Neuroticism= negative affect Individually add up to Subjective well-being They go hand-in-hand together
What types of behaviors tend to be characteristic of a person high on the neuroticism scale? Moody, touchy, irritable, anxious, unstable, pessimistic, and complaining. Tend to overreact in situations.
What kind of biological explanation did Eysenck give for neuroticism? Is due primarily to a tendency of the limbic system in the brain to become easily activated. Limbic system is the part of the brain responsible for emotion and the fight-or-flight reaction.
What are lines of evidence to suggest that neuroticism is biologically-based? Anterior cingulate is the portion of the brain located deep inside toward the center of the brain, and it most likely evolved early in the evolution of the nervous system. Increased activation during social rejection.
How do cognitive psychologists understand neuroticism? It is caused by certain styles of information processing (such as attending, thinking, and remembering).
What do neurotics tend to think about? Lower immune system due to often stressed.
What is the cognitive schema, according to Beck? Way of looking at the world and vulnerability lies here. Its distorts the incoming information in a negative way, a way that makes the person depressed.
What is Beck's cognitive triad? Three important areas of life that are most influenced by the depressive cognitive schema include: self, the world, the future.
Overgeneralization Self- I received a bad grade, I cant do anything right. World- If anything can go wrong with this, it probably will. Future- Why bother trying, everything I do is wrong.
Arbitrary inferences Self- The teachers didnt have time to see me today, she hates me. World- This teacher doesnt care, all of the teachers here prob dnt care Future- Im sure all of the teachers i will ever have will be lousy.
Personalizing Self- My softball team lost today and its my fault World- This reminds me when my team lost all of the time Future- Ill probably never be on a winning team
Catastrophizing Self- Failing this exam mean im incapable of learning World- Failing this exam means i probably wont get into grad school Future- Since i prob wont get into grad school, ill just quit school now
Self-fulfilling prophecies The person thinks they are a total failure and will often act like a total failure and may even give up trying to do better.
What is self-concept? Your understanding of yourself.
What is self-esteem? How you feel about who you are.
How does self-concept change as we age? We start to know more about ourselves as we grow older
How does it show itself in a toddler? (When does a child start to recognize them self in a mirror?) Begins on average at 18 months old.
From age 3-12 years old, what are self-concepts based on? Mainly on developing talents and skills. Either they can do it or they cant. Defined mainly in terms of sex, age, family of origin, and what the child believes he or she can or cannot do.
How does this change as the child enters adolescence? Focus on physical appearance and possessions.
What is social comparison? Most people engage in to varying degrees and do so for the rest of their lives. Is the evaluation of oneself or one's performance in terms of comparison with a reference group.
How do people with high and low self-esteem cope with failures and negative events? High SE- Maintain positive evaluation through ups and downs. Low SE- Feeling unworthy and inadequate.
Elaborate on two of the six myths of self-esteem High SE correlated with all manner of positive characteristics, physically attractive, smart, kind, generous, etc. High SE- promotes success in school.
Created by: 546496914