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Criminology Test 2

Cares, FA2012

QuestionAnswer
What is the human assumption of Rational Choice Theory? humans have free will, are rational, are self centered, egotistical, and hedonistic (max pleasure, min pain)
3 aspects to rational choice theory 1. all human behavior is a choice based off cost-benefit 2. because hedonistic, will find crime attractive 3. crime can be deterred by altering the cost/benefit scale
Doctrine of Deterrence Certain, swift, proportional
General vs. Specific deterrence general deterrence attempts to deter a whole community. specific deterrence is to deter the individual
Continuum of deterrence such as speed limit signs, keeping them in a range rather than at a specific speed
Instrumental crime vs Expressive crime Instrumental crime is crime done to get something and expressive crime is based on emotions. the more instrumental, the easier to deter
Strengths of rational choice theory broad scope, good parsimony, good at explaining certain crimes
weaknesses of rational choice theory what is rational? are individuals always rational? to many undefined variables such as rationality and proportionality
What is adjusting the calculus? making the costs more and the benefits less to crime
What is the assumption of human nature according to social control theories? humans are inherently deviant, micro level, crime results when social control fails
Who defined social bond theory? Hirschi
What did Hirshi say social bond theory was? Unless people are well bonded to society and its norms (that is, unless they have high stakes in conformity), they will follow their natural motivation to violate the law
What does it mean to have a stake in conformity? what an individual stands to lose by the discovery of deviant behavior
What are the four elements to a social bond? (IABC) Involvement (keeping busy) Attachment (caring what others think) Belief (in the rightness of the law and conventional order)
Strengths of social bond theory good empirical support, parsimony, testability, fits patterns of crime
criticisms of social bond theory limited scope, causal order, testability (difficult to measure) less empirical support than social learning theory
What is the goal of social bond theory policy's? develop attachment to conventional adults, keep people busy, encourage marraige, schools
Who came up with the general theory of crime? Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990)
What is the view of human nature according to the general theory of crime? all humans lack self-control unless developed in childhood
What is the principle assertion of the general theory of crime? Crime is the result of individuals with low self-control encountering opportunities for crime that produce immediate gratification with relatively little risk
What are some ways to build self-control in children? monitoring child's behavior, recognizing undesirable behaviors, punishing misbehavior
What are the dimensions of self control? impulsivity, risk taking, insensitivity, non-verbal orientation, shortsighted, physicality
What are some outcomes of low self-control? risky and deviant behaviors (crime, drugs, reckless driving) Leads to unstable jobs, poor physical health
what are the strengths of general theory of crime? broadest micro level scope, consistent empirical support
weaknesses of general theory of crime scope, testablitlity, logical consistency (tautological, research on brain development, influence of peers)
Who is the founder of Differential Association? Sutherland
What is the assumption of human nature according to differential association? human nature is not inherently deviant, deviance is acquired along the way
What are the principle assertions of differential association? criminal behavior is learned through interactions with others (especially intimate groups), learning includes techniques, motives, drives, rationalizations and attitudes, greater pro criminal messages greater crime, vis versa
With pro criminal and anti criminal messages, how can the messages vary? Frequency (how often), Duration (for how long), Intensity (how important the source is), Priority (how early in life)
Strengths of differential association broad scope, good parsimony, some empirical validity (self-report data by class)
Weaknesses of differential association testability, causal order problems
What is the assumption of human nature for social learning theory? humans are not inherently criminal, criminal behavior is learned
What are the five ways, according to the social learning theory, that human behavior is learned? classical conditioning, instrumental conditioning, differential association, observation and modeling, differential reinforcement
Strengths of social learning theory broad scope, good parsimony, empirical support, doesn't focus on crime as a lower class problem
weaknesses of social learning theory testability and causal order
What is the assumption of human nature according to neutralization humans are not born deviant but they drift into deviance and must justify why they drift.
5 types of neutralizations (they precede crime) denial of responsibility, denial of injury, denial of victim, condemn the condemners, appeal to higher loyalties
Strengths of neutralization helps explain the age-crime curve, explains the conforming of offenders, and patterns of victimization
weaknesses of neutralization scope and empirical support
What is the assumption of human nature according to labeling theory? symbolic interactionism: how people see themselves is based on how they think others see them. Humans and acts are not deviant
explain how labeling theory works commits deviance and is labeled as a deviant sanctions follow and if the sanctions are stigmatizing it becomes a label, the label than can become a master status, leads to changes in associations/deviant relationships leading to secondary deviance
What is the irony of formal social control and CJS sanctions? They are deviance amplifactions because they create labels
Created by: joshuamcduffie