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ANP1040 CH8

Name the 2 divisions of the skeleton. Axial & appendicular
What parts of the skeleton make up the axial skeleton? The skull, auditory ossicles, hyoid bone, vertebral column & thoracic cage (sternum & ribs).
What parts of the skeleton make up the appendicular skeleton? Bones of the upper & lower limbs as well as the pelvic & pectoral girdles.
How many bones make up the skull? 22 bones (8 cranial bones & 14 facial bones)
Name the 8 cranial bones. Frontal (1), parietal (2), occipital (1), temporal (2), sphenoid (1), ethmoid (1)
Name the 14 facial bones Maxilla (2), Palatine (2), Zygomatic (2), Lacrimal (2), Nasal (2), Inferior Nasal Concha (2), Vomer (1), Mandible (1)
Name the 6 bones that make up the auditory ossicles. Malleus (2), Incus (2), Stapes (2)
What is unique about the hyoid bone? It does NOT articulate w/ any other bone.
Name the 26 bones that make up the vertebral column. Cervical vertebrae (7), Thoracic vertebrae (12), Lumbar vertebrae (5), Sacrum (1), Coccyx (1)
What is the special name & function of the first cervical vertebra (C1)? Atlas - supports the head, has NO body, has a large vertebral foramen & is responsible for the allowing the head to "yes" nod.
What is the special name & function of the second cervical vertebra (C2)? Axis - allows for head rotation, it is nestled into the vertebral foramen of the atlas, is the first vertebrae that has a spinous process.
A heavy blow to which cervical vertebra can be fatal? C2 (Axis)
What is the articulation (joint) called where the atlas meets the cranium? atlanto-occipital joint
What is the articulation (joint) called where the atlas meets the axis? atlantoaxial joint
Which vertebrae have a transverse foramen? Cervical vertebrae
What type of vertebrae have ribs attached to them? Thoracic vertebrae.
What is unique about the appearance of thoracic vertebrae? The spinous process points downward & the body is heart-shaped and larger than the cervical vertebrae.
What is the area called that ribs attach to on the thoracic vertebrae? Costal facets
Which ribs to not attached to the transverse costal facets? T11 & T12 (The 2 floating ribs)
What is the difference between an articular facet & a costal facet? Articular facets are where one vertebra meets another. Costal facts are where ribs attach to the vertebrae.
How does the appearance of the spinous process differ between a thoracic vertebrae & a lumbar vertebra? Thoracic spinous process are pointed sharply downward & the lumbar spinous process blunt and squarish in appearance.
What is unique about the articulation processes on the lumbar vertebrae? They face one another like the palms of clapping hands.
What is the largest & most durable bone in the vertebral column? Hint: 5 seperate bones fused together make of this bony plate Sacrum
What runs through the sacral canal & comes outs the sacral hiatus? Nerve roots
On what part of the sacrum does the body of the 5th vertebra lie? Sacral promontory
What part of the sacrum articulates to the L5 vertebra? Superior articular process
What vertebrae are form the tailbone? Coccygeal vertebrae
How are the coccygeal vertebrae labeled? Co1 to Co4
What is the function of the coccyx? Provides a place for attachment of pelvic floor muscles
What is the general purpose of our vertebral column? Physically supports the skull & trunk, allows for movement, absorbs stress produced by walking, running, lifting, provides attachment for limbs, thoracic cage & postural muscles.
How many total vertebrae do we have? 33
Name & describe the 3 types of abnormal vertebral curvatures. Scoliosis (C or S shaped lateral curve), Lordosis (swayback curve in the lumbar spine), Kyphosis (hunchback curve in the cervical spine)
What makes up the "body" (centrum) of the vertebrae? Spongy bone & red bone marrow surrounded by compact bone.
The cartilaginous pad that lies between the vertebrae is called ________________ and what is it's function. intervertebral disc & functions as a shock absorber
What inside an intervertebral disc leaks out when the anulus fibrosus cracks or tears under stress? nucleus pulposus
What is the opening between two vertebrae called & what is it's purpose? intervertebral foramen - allows for passage of spinal nerves
What does the thoracic cage consist of & what is it's purpose? Thoracic vertebrae, sternum & ribs forms a cage to protect the lungs, heart & provide attachment for the pectoral girdle & upper limbs
Name the 3 parts of the sternum. Manubrium, body (gladiolus) & xiphoid process
How many do we have of the following: Total rib sets? True? False? Floating? Total = 12 pairs True = 7 pairs False = 5 pairs including 2 pairs of floating ribs)
What type of cartilage makes up costal cartilage? Hyaline cartilage
What marks the path of blood vessels & nerves on the rib? Costal groove
What 2 bones make up the pectoral girdle? Clavicle (collarbone) & Scapula (shoulder blade)
Name the joint where the medial end of the clavicle articulates w/ the sternum. Sternoclavicular joint
Name the joint where the lateral end of the clavicle articulates w/ the scapula. Acromioclavicular joint
Name the joint where the humerus articulates w/ the scapula. Glenohumeral joint
What is the function of the pectoral girdle? Supports the arm
Describe the appearance of the clavicle. S-shaped, somewhat flat bone
Describe the appearance of the scapula (shoulder blade). triangular plate that resembles a spade or shovel
Describe the 3 main features of the lateral angle (side towards the axilla) of the scapula. Acromion - plate-like extension of the scapular spine, articulates w/ the clavicle Coracoid Process - shaped like bent finger, provides attachment for biceps brachii tendons & other muscles of arm Glenoid Cavity - shallow socket, artics w/head of humeru
Scapula Spine
Name the 4 segments of the upper limb. 1. Brachium (contains 1 bone - humerus in upper arm) 2. Antebrachium (contains 2 bones - radius & ulna in lower arm) 3. Carpus (contains 8 bones - two rows of carpal bones) 4. Manus (contains 19 bones - 5 metacarpals in palms & 14 phalanges in fingers)
How many bones make up the upper limb? 30 bones
This end of the humerus has the following characteristics: - a hemispherical head that articulates w/ the glenoid cavity of the scapula. - an anatomical & surgical neck - a greater & lesser tubercles - a deltoid tuberosity Proximal end of the humerus
This end of the humerus has the following characteristics: - a rounded capitulum that articulates w/ the radial head - a trochlea that articulates w/ the ulna - lateral & medial epicondyles - an olecranon fossa to holds the olecranon process of the ul Distal end of the humerus Additional Note: Trochlea (medial side of the smooth condyle) Capitulum (lateral side of the smooth condyle)
Radius Radius
Ulna Ulna
What type of movement(s) do the 8 carpal bones allow? Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction
Name the carpal bones in the proximal row. Hint: 4 bones Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrium, Pisiform
Name the carpal bones in the distal row. Hint: 4 bones Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, Hamate
Name the 3 sections of a phalange begin with the end closest to the body. Proximal phalanx, Middle Phalanx, Distal Phalanx
Which epicondyle protects the ulnar nerve & where is it located? (Often referred to as our funny bone) Medial epicondyle located at the distal end of the humerus.
What is the thumb called & how many phalanges does it have? Pollex (2 phalanges)
Name the 3 bones that make up the pelvic girdle. Complete ring composed of 2 hip (coxal) bones & the sacrum.
Describe the structure of the pelvis & its function. Bowl-shaped structure composed of 2 coxal bones & the sacrum as well as the ligaments & muscles that line the pelvic cavity & form its floor. It supports trunk on the lower limbs & protects viscera, lower colon, urinary bladder & internal repro organs
Name the joint that joins the hipbone to the vertebral column. Sacroiliac joint
The region where the 2 pubic bones are joined by an interpubic disc. Pubic symphysis
____________________ is a round margin that separates the greater (false) pelvic & lesser (true) pelvic. Pelvic brim
The opening circumscribed by brim that infant's head must pass during birth is called ______________________. Pelvic inlet
_______________________ is the lower margin of the lesser pelvis. Pelvic outlet
Name the 3 distinct features of the hip bone. - Iliac crest (superior crest of hip) - Acetabulum (hip socket) - Obturator foramen (large hole below acetabulum)
The adult hip bone results from the fusion of 3 childhood bones. Name the 3 bones. Ilium, ischium & pubis
Describe the characteristics of the following: Ilium - Largest bone that makes up the hip bone - Extends from the iliac crest to the center of the acetabulum - Greater sciatic notch that the sciatic nerve passes through
Describe the characteristics of the following: Ischium - Is the inferoposterior portion of the hipbone - Has an ischial tuberosity that supports the body when sitting
Describe the characteristics of the following: Pubis (pubic bone) - Most anterior portion of the hipbone - Has a superior & inferior ramus - Has a triangular body
List some of the characteristics of the FEMALE pelvis. - lesser pelvis is wider & more shallow than male pelvis - adapts for pregnancy & childbirth - larger pelvic inlet & outlet for passage of infant's head - upper end tilted forward - pelvic inlet is round or oval - Suprapubic angle > 90 degree
List some of the characteristics of the MALE pelvis. - lesser pelvis is narrower & deeper - heavier & thicker due to forces exerted by strong muscles - pelvic inlet is heart-shaped - Suprapubic angle 90 degress or less
Name the 4 segments of the lower limb. 1. Femoral region (thigh) - (contains femur) 2. Crural region (leg proper) - (contains tibia & fibula) 3. Tarsal region (tarsus aka ankle) - (contains tarsal bones) 4. Pedal region (pes aka foot) - (contains 7 tarsals, 5 metatarsals, 14 phalanges)
Name the bone w/ the following characteristics: - longest & strongest bone of the body - head articulates w/the acetabulum - forms a ball & socket joint - has a greater & lesser trochanter for muscle attachment - medial & lateral epicondyles distally The Femur
Where is the intercondylar fossa located? Between the medial & lateral epicondyles of the femur
____________________ is a smooth medial depression located on the anterior surface of the femur that articulates w/ the patella. Patellar surface
_____________________ is a flat or slightly depressed area on the posterior surface of the femur. Popliteal surface
Name the bone w/ the following characteristics: - triangular sesamoid bone embedded in the tendon of the knee - quadriceps femoris tendon extends from anterior muscle of thigh to this bone Patella
Name the ligament from the patella to the tibia. Patellar ligament
Tibia Tibia
Fibula Fibula
Ankle & Foot Ankle & Foot
Ankle & Foot Ankle & Foot
Ankle & Foot Ankle & Foot
Name 9 common types of bone markings. - Ridges - Spines - Bumps - Depressions - Canals - Pores - Slits - Cavities - Articular surfaces
What is the total # of bones in an adult skeleton? 206
Created by: shaston001