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MS Exam 3

MC 2012 Fall MS with Crouch

QuestionAnswer
Normal EF 50-70%
EF may confirm HF dx 35-40%
EF increases risk of sudden death <35%
Hallmark sign of HF ventricular remodeling
BNP for No HF <100
BNP for HF >300
ACE Inhibitor Action decreases BP & diuresis to decrease O2 demands
Morphine ACtion reduces preload & afterload to decrease workload, relaxes bronchioles, & enhances oxygenation
CAD S&S DOE Hx of elevated BP Smoking Poor Dietary habits sedentary lifestyle Obesity Angina pectoris
Myocardial Ischemia narrowing of artery more than 50% thus blood flow doesn't meet metabolic demands
MI S&S EKG changes elecation of cardiac enzymes, P, & BP decreased O2 sat elevated WBC electrolyte abnormalities
4 E's of Angina Eating, Excitement, Environment, & Exercise
Mitral Valve Prolapse S&S asymptomatic or midsystolic click dysrhythmia, tachycardia, light-headedness, syncope, fatigue, lethargy, wekaness, chest tightness, anxiety, hyperventilation, depression, panic attack, atypical chest pain
Mitral Regurgitation can lead to atrial dilation & fibrillation & finally HF
Complications of Cardiomyopathy CHF major one, enlargement of septum, thromboemboli
Rheumatic Endocarditis caused by streptococci
Normal Pericardial fluid amount 20-50 mL
Pericarditis fluid amouunt 1,500 mL
Myocaditis increased risk in pregnant women
Complications of Pericarditis pericardial effusion & HF
Complications of Myocarditis pericarditis, arrhythmia, chronic dilated cardiomyopathy, HF
Major NI for HF patients daily weights
Most common cause of left sided heart disease is pulmonary edema
S&S of Pulmonary Edema pink frothy sputum
Left HF lungs
Right HF peripheral
5 P's of PAD pulsessness, paralysis, parathesia, pain, & pallor
Hallmark sign of PAD intermittent claudication
Bueger's disease smoking or your legs purple red dependent & pallor elevation
Raynaud's Disease dx made when? 2 or more years of attacks
Complications of Aortic Aneurysm rupture, cardiac arrest, hemorrhage, shock, & death
Reporting weights for HF 2-3 lbs/day or 5 lbs/week
4 Cardinal Signs of Cardiac Tamponade falling systolic BP narrowing pulse pressure rising venous pressure distant heart sounds
HTN level 1 140/90
Stable Angina predictable & consistent & is relieved
Unstable Angina no pattern increases in freq & severity not relieved; plaque ruptures not
Refractory severe incapacitating
Variant even at rest & EKG changes reversible
Silent EKG changes no pain
1st step to do with chest pain sit & rest
if they have a mechanical valve it requires what? life-long anticoagulation therapy
What is intermediate sodium level? 2,400 mg/day
What is low sodium level? 1,500 mg/day
What foods high in sodium should you limit? cured foods packed in brine condiments salt in pasta etc
Endocarditis occurs most often with what? prosthetic heart valves, structural defects, IV drug abusers, debilitating diseases, indwelling catheres, prolonged IV therapy
Prehypertension 120-39/80-89
HTN Stage 2 >160/100
Created by: midnight1854