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Step 1 10.30.12

Microbiology X

QuestionAnswer
What are the most common causes of meningitis in newborns (0- 6 months)? Group B strep, E. coli, Listeria
What are the most common causes of meningitis in children (6months-6yr)? Streptococcus pneumonidae, neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae B, Enteroviruses
What are the most common causes of meningitis in 6-60 yrs olds? S. pneumonidae, N. meningitidis (esp in teens), enteroviruses, HSV
What are the most common causes of meningitis in 60+ yr old? S. pneumonidae, G- rods, Listeria
What is a usual empiric treatment for meningitis? What do you add if you suspect Listeria? Ceftriaxone, vancomycin empirically. add ampicillin if Listeria is suspected
What are some viral causes of meningitis in a healthy person? neteroviruses (coxsackie esp), HSV-2 ( HSV1 is encephalitis), HIV, West Nile, VZV
What are some common causes of meningitis in an HIV pt? Cryptococcus, CMV, toxoplasmosis (brain absess), JC virus (PML)
What pateint population are basically the only ones to get meningitis from H. influenzae? unimmunized children
incr opening pressure, incr PMNs, incr protein, and decr sugar denostes what type of meningtis? bacterial
incr opening pressure, incr lymphocytes, incr protein, decr sugar denotes what type of meningitis? fungal/Tb
normal or elevated opening pressure, incr lymphocytes, normal to elevated protein, and normal sugar in CSF denotes what type of meningitis? viral
What causes osteomyelitis in most people? S. aureus. assume it with no other info
What might cause osteomyelitis in the sexuallly active? N. gonnhoeae rarely, septic artritis is more coomon
What are 2 classic labs for osteomyelitis, are they specific? elevated CRP, ESR but this is non specific
What might cause osteomyelitis in DM or IVDA? pseudomonas aeuruginosa
What might cause osteomyelitis in a sickle cell pt? salmonella
What might cause osteomyelitis in a prostetic replacement pt? S. aureus, S. epidermidis
What might cause a sepcifically vertebral osteomyelitis? M. Tb. (Pott's disease)
What might cause an osteomyelitis from a cat or dog bite? Pasteurella multocida
What urine findings are seen in cystitis? dysuria, frequency, urgency, WBCs but not casrs in urine
What are common causes of cystitis in males? infants with congential defect, vesicoureteral reflex. Elderly= enlarge prostate.
what is seen if a UTI ascends to the kidney? pyelonephritis, fever chills, flankpain, CVA tenderness, hematuria, WBC casts
What are some predisposing factors for female UTI? obstruction, kidney surgery, catheterization, GU malformation, DM, pregnanacy
A urine with positive leukocyte esterase would indicate? bacterial UTI
A urine with a positive nitrite test would indicate? G- bacterial UTI
What are the charactersitcs of an E. coli UTI? leading cuase. colonies with green metallic sheen on EMB agar. Markers: positive leukocyte esterase
What are the characterisitcs of a Staphylococcus saprophyiticus UTI? 2nd leading in sexually active women, positive nitrite test = G- except Staph saprophyticus
What bugs produce a + urease test in UTI? Proteus, Klebsiella
What bugs produce a - urease test in UTI? E. coli, streptococcus, enterococcus
What is seen in a UTI from klebsiella pneumonidae? 3rd leading cuase, large mucoid capsule and vsicous colonies
What is seen in an UTI from serratia marcesens? some have red piugment, often nosocomial and drug resitant
What is seen in a UTI from enterobacter cloacae? nosocomial and drug resistant
What is seen in a UTI from Proteus mirabilis? motility causes swarming on agar; produces urease, associated with struvite stones
What is seen in a UTI from pseudomonas aeruginosa? blue green pigment and fruity odor; usually nosocomial and drug resistant
What are ToRCHeS infections and how are they passed? pass from mother to fetus. transplacental passing mostly but some in delivery like HSV2
What are some of the nonspecific signs associated with ToRCHeS infections? hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation
What causes hydrops fetalis? Parvovirus B19
What are some important infectious agents that can be peripartum and not in ToRCHeS? Strep agalactiaceae (grop B), E. coli, Listeria monocytogenes
What are the ToRCHeS organisms? Toxoplasma gondii, rubella, CMV, HIV, HSV-2, Syphilis
How is toxoplasma gondii trasmitted to the child and what are the maternal manifestations? cat feces or undercooked meat. usually Asx in mom. rarely lymphadenopathy
What are the neonatal manifestations of toxoplasma gondii? triad: chorioretinits, hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications
What is the mode of transmission and maternal signs of rubella infection? respiratory droplets. maternal: rash, lymphadenopathy, arthritis
What are the neonatal manifestations of rubella infection? triad: PDA (pulmonary artery hypoplasia), cataracts, deafness. maybe blueberry muffin rash
What is the mode of transmission and maternal manifestations of CMV infection? STD or organ transplants. Usually Asx, but can be mono like illness
What are the neonatal manifestations of CMV infection? hearing loss, seizures, petichial rash, blueberry muffin rash
How is HIV acquired and what are the maternal manifestations? STD. variable presentation depending on CD4 count
What are the neonatal manifestations of HIv infection? recurrent infections, chronic diarrhea
How is HSV-2 acquired and what are the maternal manifestations? skin or mucous membrane contact. usually Asx in mom. maybe herpetic lesions
What are the neonatal manifestations ofHSV2 infection? temporal encephalitis, herpetic lesions
How is syphilis acquired and what are the maternal manifestations? STD. primary= chancre secondary= rash teriarry= cardiac/neruologic
What are the neonatal manifestations of syphilis? still birth, hydrops fetalis. facial abnormalities if survive, saber shins. CN VIII deafness
What are the rash characteristics and accompanying sx of rubella? rash begins at head and moves down. fine truncal rash. postauricular lmpadenopathy
What is the rash of measels and what type of virus causes it? paramyxovirus. begins at head and moves. rash precedied by coryza, cough, conjunctivits, blue/white Koplik spots on buccal mucosa
What is the rash and accompanying Sx of VZV ? vesicular rash starting on trunk, spreads to face and extremites with esions of different ages
What is the rash of HHV-6, accompany sx, and disease? roseola. macular rash over body appears after several days of high fever, usually in infants
What is the name of, rash, and accompanying sx of Parvovirun B19? What might it cause in pregnancy? erythema infectiosum. slapped cheek rash on face. can cause hydrops fetalis in pregnant women.
What is the name of, rash, and accompany sx of stretococcus pyogenes? scarlet fever, erythematous, sand paper like rash with fever and sore throat
What is the name of, rash, and accompanying sx of coxsackie virus type A? hand-foot-mouth disease. vesicular rash on palms and soles. ulcers in oral mucosa
urethritis, cerviticts, PID, prostatitis, epididymitis, artritis, creamy purulent discharge. What STD and organism? gonorrhea. Neisseria gonorrhoeae
painless chancre. organism and disease? syphilis. Treptonemia pallidum
fever, lympahadenopathy, skin rashes, condylomata lata. STD and organism? secondary syphilis. Treptonema pallidum
gummas, tabes dorsalis, general paresis, aortitis, Argyll robinson pupil. STD and organism? tertiary syphilis. Treptonema pallidum
Painful genital ulcer, inguinal lympadnopathy. STD and organism? chancroid. haemophilus ducreyi
Painful penile, vulvar, cervical vesicles and ulcers. can see fever, HA, myalgia. STD and organism? genital herpes. HSV-2
urethritis, cervicitis, conjunctivitis. Reiters syndrome, PID. STD and organism? Chlamydia. Chlamydia trachomatis (D-K)
infection of lymphatics. genital ulcers, lympahadenopathy, rectal strictures. STD and organism? lymphogranuloma venereum. Chlamydia trachomatis (L1-L3)
vaginitis, straberry colored mucosa, corkscrew motility on wet prep. STD and organnis,m? Trichomoniasis. Trichomonas vaginalis
opportunitistic infections, Karposi's sarcoma, lymphoma. STD and organism? AIDS. HIV
genital warts. koilocytes. STD and organism? condylomata acuminata. HPV 6 and 11
jaudice. STD and organism? Hep B. HBV
noninflammatory, malodorus discharge (fishy), positive whiff test, clue cells, STD (not exclusively) and organism? Bacterial vaginosis, Gardnerella vaginalis
What causes acute Pelvic inflammatory disease? N. gonorrheao
What causes subacute pelvic inflammatory disease? Chlamydia trachomatis
What types of sx are seen in pelvic inflammatory disease? cervical motion tenderness ( chandelier sign), purulent cervical discharge, salpingitis, endometritis, hydrosalpinx, tuboovarian absess
What is salpingitis from PId a RF for? ectopic pregnancy, infertility, chronic pelivic pain, adhesiosions
What can be a long term consequence of PID? Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome. infection of liver capsule and violin string adhesions of parietal peritoneum to liver
When might CMV or RSV cause a nosocomial infection? newborn nursery
What are the 2 most common nosocomial infections? E.coli: UTI, s. aureus (wound infection)
When might E. coli or proteus mirabilis cause a nosocomial infection? urinary catheter
When might pseudomonas aeruginosa cause a nosocomail infection? intubation, burns victims
When might HBV cause a noscomail infection? renal dialysis unit
When might candida albicans cause a nosocomail infection? hyperalimentation
When might legionella cause a nosocomail infection? water sources
unimmunized child, rash at head moving down with post auricular lymphadenopathy. organism? rubella virus
unimmunized child. rash at head moving down. rash preceded by coryza, cough, conjunctivits and koplik spots on buccal mucosa. pathogen? measels. paramyxovirus
unimmunized child. microbe colonizing nasopharynx. can lead to myalgia and paralysis. pathogen? H. influenzae type B, poliovirus
unimmunized child. grayish oropharyngeal exudate. pseudomembranes in throat. pathogen? Corynebacteria diptheriae. (toxin causes necrosis in parynx and CNs tissue)
unimmunized child. epiglottis. fever with dysphagia, drooling, difficulty breathing due to cherry red epiglottitis. pathogen? H. influenzae type B
Pus, empyema, abscess. pathogen? S. aureus
Pediatric epiglottis. pathogen? Hamophilus influenzae
pneumonia in CF or burn victims. pathogen? Pseudomonas aeruginosa
branching rods in oral infection. sulfur granules. pathogen? actinomyces israelii
traumatic open wound. pathogen? clostridium perfringens
surgical wound. pathogen? S. aureus
dog or cat bite. pathogen? pateurella multocida
currant jelly sputum. pathogen? Klebsiella
Positive PAS stain. pathogen? Tropheryma whippeli (Whipple's disease)
sepsis/miningitis in newborns. pathogen? group B strep
healthcare provider with needle stick. disease? Hep B
Fungal infection in DM. pathogen? Mucor or rhizopus spp.
Asplenic pt. pathogen? encapsulated. SHiN: S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae type B, N. meningitidis)
Chronic granulatomous disease. pathogen? catalase positive microbes
neutropenic patients. pathogen? candida albicans (systemic), aspergillus
Bilateral Bell's palsy. pathogen? Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease)
Created by: tjs2123