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Column 1 alkali metals
Column 2 alkaline- earth metals
Column 3-12 transition elements
Column 13 metalloids
Column 17 halogens
Column 18 noble gases
H20 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen
C6H1206 6 carbon atoms, 12 hydrogen atoms and 6 oxygen atoms
Mg(OH)2 1 magnesium atom, 2 oxygen atoms and 2 hydrogen atoms.
Element Is a substance made up of only 1 type of atom. E.g. Sulfur
Compound Is a substance made up of 2 or more DIFFERENT types of atoms chemically joined together. E.g. H20
Mixture Consists of 2 or more different substances mixed together but NOT chemically combined. E.g. Air
Non-metals Most are gases Don't conduct electricity & not ductile Often have atoms joined together to form molecules e.g. H2, O2.
Metals Most found in earth's crust Mostly shiny, good conductors. Most are solids at room temp.
Alloys A mixture of 2 elements 1 of which is a metal. Often harder than metals. Sometimes used to prevent rusting. Have different properties (melt and boil point)
Physical change Easily reversible Change of state, temp, shape Don't involve formation of new chemical . Dissolving is an example of a physical change
Chemical change Isn't easily reversed Occurs when substance combine in different ways to form new substance
Signs of Chemical reaction Gas given off Change in temp Smell given off Light given off Colour change New substance made
Combustion You need 3 things: oxygen, fuel and heat
Burning Hydrogen + oxygen = water
Metals reaction Metals react with oxygen to form oxides
Rusting Chemical name- Hydrated iron oxide. For rust to occur you need water and oxygen . rusting is a chemical reaction
Prevention of rusting- Paint Adv. cheap Dis. friction causes it to flake
Prevention of rusting- Oil Adv. cheap Dis. not long lasting
Prevention of rusting- Galvanising Adv. long lasting, effective Dis. very expensive coat iron w/ thin layer of zinc. This reacts with oxygen instead of iron so iron doesn't rust.
Prevention of rusting- Alloying involves mixing iron w/ other chemical such as Carbon. dis. very expensive
Reversing Chemical Changes Difficult to reverse but can be done. ELECTORLYSIS is a common way of causing a compound to break down into constituent elements. E.g. water splits into hydrogen gas and oxygen gas.
Carbon dioxide to make- add marble chips to hydrochloric acid. to test- bubble the limewater- if limewater goes from clear to cloudy then gas is carbon dioxide
Hydrogen gas to make- add metal- magnesium to hydrochloric acid to test- take a lit flame to the gas, if it ignites w/ squeaky pop then gas is hydrogen.
Oxygen gas to make- add magnesium dioxide powder to hydrogen peroxide to test- take a glowing splint to the gas. If the glowing splint relights then the gas is oxygen.
Created by: aliceb