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Adult Musculoskeletal system

How do you grade muscle strength? 0-5; 0= No detection of muscular contraction, 5 = Active movement against full resistance without evident fatigue (NORMAL STRENGTH).
What is Boutonniere Deformity? Flexion of proximal interphalageals (PIPS) and hyperextension of distal interphalangeals (DIPS) of fingers. (COMMON IN RA and PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS).
what is a contracture? Resistance of movement of muscle or joint. Incorrect positioning of immobilized joints.
What are some types of Fractures? (Transverse, spiral, greenstick, comminuted, oblique, pathologic and stress.)
What are the three types of intracapsular fractures? Capital, Subcapital, and transcervical.
What are the two types of extracapsular fractures? Intertrochanteric between the lesser and greater trochanter and Subtrochanteric.
What is included in the nurse management for hip surgery? Alleviate pain, increase mobility, prevent complications, Provide patient teaching: Prescribed activity, Tissue perfusion and incentive spirometer.
What is traction? Purpose =prevent or reduce pain, immobilize, reduce traction or dislocation, treat pathologic joint condition, avoid further damage, help promote AROM or PROM or expand joint space.
What happens if the traction is too tight? The nerves and blood vessels can be impaired.
Where is a common site for infection with traction? Pins/Wires.
What is a risk with internal skeletal traction? Bone inflammation.
What can happen when traction weight is too excessive? Bone separation
What is Bucks Traction? A velcro boot being pulled by a string pulley and weight.
What care would you give to a Pt. in traction? Check Traction type & weights, Rope maintenance, Skin, Alignment, Circulation.
What are some soft tissue injuries? Blows, Twisting, Overuse, Ligament/Tendon tears (common site knee, ankle, shoulder), swelling, joint instability and loss of function.
What is the Lachman's test? Thats a good question!
What are some treatments for soft tissue injuries? RICE (rest, ice, compress, elevate); NSAID's, TENS unit, surgical repair, rest then weight bearing.
What are the two types of arthritis and how are they different? Osteoarthritis (OA) Wear and tear NOT SYSTEMIC; and Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) Inflammatory autoimmune SYSTEMIC.
List some characteristics of Osteoarthritis. Slow, progressive, noninflammatory, synovial joints (morning stiffness less than 30 minutes.)
What is the main risk factor of Osteoarthritis? Age
What is Osteoarthritis? Cartilage damage that triggers a metabolic response at the level of the chondrocytes.
What are two deformities from OA? Heberden's nodes occur on the DIPS; Bouchard's nodes occur on the PIPS.
What are the nursing cares for OA? Manage Pain and inflammation, prevent disability, tylenol, rest and joint protection, heat and ice.
What is Ankyosing Spondylitis? Long-term disease that involves inflammation of the joints between the spinal bones, and the joints between the spine and pelvis.
What is Gout? Urate crystals occur in the articular, periarticular, and subcutaneous tissues.
What anatomical site is effected the most with Gout? The great toe.
What are tophi? Sodium urate crystals found in gout (rarely on the first attack).
How do we care for Pt's with gout? joint immobilization, heat/cold, joint aspiration and intraarticular corticosteroids, avoid diets high in PURINES (anchovies, liver, wine/beer).
Men are 2 to 3 times more likely than women to have Rheumatoid Arthritis. (T/F) False Women are 2 to 3 times more likely.
What are some manifestations of RA? Fatigue, anorexia, weight loss, and generalized stiffness (may proceed the onset). Mostly small joints, swollen, tender, painful, warm.
What are some deformities of RA? Unar Deviation, Swan Neck, Boutonniere.
What is Raynaud's syndrome? complication of the hands due to vasoconstriction.
What are some management techniques? Splints/braces, surgery, osteotomy, Drugs (NSAID's, Glucocorticoids, DMARD's.
What is Compartment Syndrome? The compression of nerves, blood bessels, and muscle inside a closed space within the body.
What can cause compartment syndrome? Fractures of tibia, humoral shaft, radius/ulna combined; also soft tissue injuries; crush injuries.
What are some manifestations of Comp syndrome? Decreased urinary output; Cold extremity; Poor circulation; Edema; Pain
What are the 6 P's of Compartment Syndrome? Paresthesia; Pain; Pressure; Pallor; Paralysis; Pulselessness.
How is Comp syndrome treated? Early recognition; Effective treatment; Fasciotomy.
What is Fibromyalgia? Chronic disorder, nonarticular musculoskeletal pain and fatigue with multiple tender points.
What are some nursing management techniques for Fibromyalgia? Rehabilitation, nutrition, pain, relaxation techniques.
What is muscular dystrophy? Inherited disorders that involve muscle weakness and loss of muscle tissue, which get worse over time.
How do you treat Muscular dystrophy? No known cure. Focus on Symptoms: PT, Braces/Wheelchairs, Corticosteriods.
What are the manifestations of Muscular Dystrophy? Scoliosis; Joint contractures (clubfoot); Hypotonia (decreased muscle tone).
Created by: zj mepn
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