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BJU Life Science 21

Bob Jones Life Science - Chapter 21

QuestionAnswer
lung An organ that exchanges gases between the atmosphere and the blood
mucus A slimy, protective substance on the exterior of many fish and some amphibians; a thick, sticky substance secreted by the mucous membranes in the human body
pharynx A musculatory tube that forms a section of some animals' digestive systems; the passageway between the mouth and the nose, esophagus, and larynx; also called the throat
esophagus In earthworms, a tubular passageway that carries food from the pharynx to the crop; in humans and vertebrate animals, a part of the digestive tract that connects the pharynx and stomach
larynx The short passageway that leads from the pharynx to the trachea, the sound-producing organ
epiglottis A think, flexible flap of tissue in front of the larynx that folds over and blocks the glottis during swallowing
uvula A structure at the back of the throat that prevents food from entering the nasal cavity when swallowing
glottis The space between the vocal folds that is a passageway for air
trachea In insects, one of the tiny tubes that branch throughout the body, carrying air to the tissues; in humans and vertebrate animals, the tube that carries air between the pharynx and the lungs
bronchi The two branches of the trachea; carry air to and from the lungs
alveoli The microscopic sacs in the lungs where gases are exchanged between the air and the bloodstream
diaphragm The part of a microscope that regulates the amount of light that passes through a specimen; the muscle that separates the thorax from the abdomen in mammals and humans and that aids in breathing
digestion The breakdown of food into smaller substances that the body's cells can use
assimilation The growth process by which living cells convert nutrients from food into cellular structures
alimentary canal The group of digestive organs forming the digestive tract that runs from mouth to anus
peristalsis Muscular contractions that move food along the alimentary canal
salivary gland A digestive gland that secretes saliva into the mouth
chyme The semiliquid mixture of digestive juices and partly digested food in the stomach and small intestine
small intestine The long, tubular organ in which most of the digestion and absorption of food occurs
villi Microscopic, fingerlike structures that line the wall of the small intestine and aid in the absorption of food molecules
large intestine The part of the digestive tract that extends from the end of the small intestine to the anus and absorbs water and minerals
liver The organ that produces bile, helps regulate substances in the blood, and stores vitamins and minerals
bile A substance secreted by the liver that helps separate lipids into small droplets to aid digestion
pancreas An organ that secretes enzymes into the small intestine to help perform digestion and also secretes the hormone insulin into the bloodstream
Created by: heidio