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Unit 2

Biology Unit 2 Review

Prokaryote organism with no nucleus bacteria and archea
Eukaryote organism with nucleus protist, fungi, plant, animal
Pili hairlike projections on bacteria movement conjugation (exchange of genetic material) between bacteria
Phospholipid main component of the lipid bilayer hydrophilic phosphate head and hydrophobic glycerol and fatty acid tails
Glycoprotein membrane protein with carbohydrate attached; can function in
Glycolipid membrane protein with carbohydrate attached; can function in
Cholesterol lipid sterioid that provides support to the lipid bilayer
Transmember protein protein that goes completely through the plasma membrane
Integral protein protein embedded in the membrane
Transport proteins type of transmember proteins that act as channels (for facilitated diffusion) and carriers (for active transport)
Peripheral proteins proteins located on the outerside of the membrane; aid integral proteins; also help to anchor cytoskeleton to plasma membrane
Diffusion random movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
Passive transport does not use energy; diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion
Osmosis diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
Hypertonic solution solution with more solute
Hypotonic solution solution with less solute
Isotonic solution equal amount of solute
Active transport requires energy; uses carrier proteins, endocytosis and exocytosis
Endocytosis process in which molecules or organisms are brought into the cell; the plasma membrane pinches in creating a transport vessicle
Exocytosis process in which molecules are released from the cell; vessicles bring packaged material to the plama membrane, fuse with the membrane and release contents outside of cell
Cytoplasm liquid (cytosol) and contents of the inner part of the cell
Mitochondria site where cellular respiration occurs; releases energy from sugars and turns it into ATP; able to self-replicate; has own DNA
Chloroplasts converts light energy into chemical energy site of photosynthesis contains chlorophyll
Nucleus houses a cell's genetic material; prominent organelle
Nucleolous contains the parts to make ribosomes dense mass within the nucleus
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum builds lipid molecules like oils, phospholipids, and steroids; helps detoxify
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum covered with ribosomes transports made proteins by a structure called a vesicle can aide in the production of some proteins
Ribosomes constructs proteins (protein synthesis; reads the instructions dictated by the cell's DNA to make proteins made in nucleolous composed of ribosomal RNA and proteins
Lysosomes contains digestive enzymes to break down macromolecules recycles old organelles part of the body's defense; helps destroy harmful bacteria, viruses, etc. that enter a cell
Vacuoles storage for undigested nutrients central vacuole - in plates; also stores water, pigments, even poisons contractile vacuole; in freshwater protists; pumps excess water out of the cell
Golgi Apparatus modifies, stores, and routes proteins and other chemicals throughout the cell in vesicles or to be released outside of the cell finishes modifications to macromolecules to be exported
Plastid manufacture and store important compounds ex. chloroplasts
Peroxisome break down fatty acids break down toxic materials breaks down hydrogen peroxide
Cellular Respiration production of ATP by products of carbon dioxide and water in the mitochondria
Photosynthesis production of sugars byproduct oxygen occurs in the chloroplast
Cytoskeleton protein structures that give a cell shape, organization, and rigidity to enable to the cell to move (if needed) microtubules - can be a track to move molecules and organelles throughout the cell microfilaments - eneable movement and shape change
Cilia numerous short projects with back and forth movement; found on eukaryotic cells aid in cell movement can extend from stationary cells to move substances over the cells (respiratory cells move debris down into the stomach
Flagella thin, whip-like structures with an S shaped movement; found on eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells
Cell wall found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes (but not animals) cell protection cell structure composed mainly of cellulose in plants
Created by: tneuhoff