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a neurological disorder that interferes with normal brain development It affects the way sensory input is processed resulting in deficits in learning, reasoning, communication and social relationships,4x more prevalent in boys Autism
It is a spectrum disorder because it differs in degree and severity along a continuum Left hemisphere dysfunction---language, reasoning, logic ------ savant syndrome Autism
Four major areas of assessment in autism Language Development Intellectual Development Interpersonal Relationships Motor Skills
Autism is present from birth but usually diagnosed between ___ and ___ months 18 24
The hallmark defining characteristic of autism Failure to develop language
In autism many parents present with complaint that they believe their child is deaf (motor behavior of covering their ears)
Pronoun reversal---I and You Delayed or absent language Language is such a clear defining characteristic that it is also a prognostic indicator. Failure to develop language by age 5 often hails a poor prognosis Autism
frequently points or tugs on caregiver to get needs met,easily frustrated in great part related to inability to communicate Autism
An initial complaint of parents is a lack of emotions, failure to bond, not wanting to be held, “appears to be in own world”, autistic aloneness Autism
Poor coordination Tiptoe walking Peculiar hand movements ---- flapping and clapping Stereotyped body movements Prone to injury Autism
Austism ND Impaired verbal communication Social isolation Risk for injury
What is an important consideration in treatment with Tranquilizers in an autistic child Major Tranquilizers interfere with the growth hormone—on 3 months, off one
decreases opiates in the brain. Shown to decrease self-injurious behavior but has no effect on language skills in autistic child Naltrexone
Important NI with the Hospitalized Child with Autism Thorough assessment of child’s routines vital necessity Involve parents Provide parents with needed respite
Resembles Autism but it is usually recognized later in childhood because there is normal language and communication development Severe disturbance in social interactions Asperger’s Disorder
Usually does not manifest itself until age of 2 years after a period of normal development Bizarre behavior, symbolic communication, marked regression, possible hallucinations and delusions Asperger’s Disorder
Observed only in females Development of severe neuro deficits after period of normal pre and post natal development Head circumference normal at birth but growth rate slows between 5 and 48 months. Progressive loss of previously acquired motor skills Rett’s Disorder
No exact known cause Brain imaging does show changes in striatal region of the brain----reduced blood flow. Ritalin has been shown to increase blood flow to this area Excessive gross motor activity is a defining characteristic ADHD
Major side effect is weight loss and delayed growth, a long acting drug that can be given once daily but most children on this need twice daily dosing, often needed to be given by school nurse. methyphenidte HCL (Ritalin)
Similar to Ritalin but advantage is once daily dosing but can be given in divided doses. Black Box Warning: Some studies have shown children on this drug have increased risk of suicide Must monitor weight and growth similar to Ritalin. Atomoxetine HCL (Strattera)
A disease that is characterized by progressive deterioration in cognitive functioning,exists on a continuum from mild to severe-- Alzheimer’s
Alzheimer’s Assessment Defensive Behaviors Denial Confabulation Perseveration Avoidance of questions
Alzheimer’s Disease Four defining characteristics Aphasia Apraxia Memory Impairment Disturbances in Executive Functioning
Tertiary level of prevention Alzheimer’s Safety Maintain optimal level of functioning Simple Structured environment Clear Communication ----multiple channels Family support
Alzheimer’s Medications Tacrine (Cognex, THA) Donepezil (Aricept) Vitamin E Ibuprofen Estrogen
Neurological disease marked by motor and verbal tics Causes marked distress in social and occupational functioning May appear as early as age of 2 but most commonly occurs around age 7 Tourette’s Disorder
Motor Tics Usually involve head. __________usually first symptom Change in location, frequency and severity over time eye blinking
Verbal Tics Words and Sounds Coprolalia (uttering obscenities) Tourette’s Disorder
Created by: troop27