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MrsC Med Term Chap10

Nervous System

QuestionAnswer
cerebell/o cerebellum
cerebr/o cerebrum
dur/o dura mater
encephal/o brain
gli/o glial cell
lept/o thin, slender
mening/o, meningi/o membranes, meninges
my/o muscle
myel/o spinal cord
neur/o nerve
pont/o pons
radicul/o nerve root
thalam/o thalamus
thec/o sheath (refers to meninges)
vag/o vagus nerve
alges/o, -algesia excessive sensitivity to pain
-algia pain
caus/o burning
comat/o deep sleep
esthesi/o, -esthesia feeling, nervous sensation
kines/o,kinesi/o, -kinesia, kinesis, kinetic movement
-lepsy seizure
lex/o word, phrase
-paresis slight paralysis
-phasia speech
-plegia paralysis
-praxia action
-sthenia strength
Syncop/o cut off
Tax/o order, coordination
Neuron individual nerve cell
Ganglia small clusters of nerve cell bodies
Cerebrum Manages speech, vision, smell, movement, hearing, and thought
Cerebellum Coordinates voluntary movements , Maintains balance
Thalamus Integrates and monitors impulses from skin (pain)
Hypothalamus Controls body temperature, sleep, appetite, sexual desire, and emotions;Regulates release of hormones from pituitary gland;Monitors sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
Pons Bridges cerebrum and cerebellum with rest of the brain;Houses nerves for face and eyes
Medulla oblongata Connects spinal cord to brain; Nerve tracts from side to side;Regulates:Blood vessels, Heart, Respiratory system
cerebellar Pertaining to the cerebellum.
cerebrospinal fluid Fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord and is located within the ventricles of the brain.
cerebral cortex The outer region (gray matter) of the cerebrum.
Acetylcholine neurotransmitter which activates to release stored electrical energy
afferent nerve sensory nerve
arachnoid membrane layer of meninges surround the brain and spinal cord
astrocyte nerve cell that transports water and salts between capillaries and neurons
autonomic nervous system controls automatic functions
axon carries the impulse away from the cell body
blood-brain barrier protective barrier between the blood and brain cells
brainstem pons and medulla oblongata
cauda equine horse tail, a fan of nerve fibers below the spinal cord
subdural hematoma Collection of blood under the dura mater (outermost layer of the meninges).
epidural hematoma Collection of blood above the dura mater.
encephalitis Inflammation of the brain.
Encephalopathy Any disease of the brain.
Anencephaly Condition of no brain (congenital anomaly).
glioblastoma Tumor (malignant) of glial (neuroglial or supportive) cells in the brain.
Leptomeningeal Pertaining to the pia mater and arachnoid membranes of the meninges.
meningeal Pertaining to the meninges.
meningioma Tumor of the meninges.
myelomeningocele Hernia of the spinal cord and meninges; associated with spina bifida.
Myoneural Pertaining to muscle and nerve.
myelogram Record (x-ray) of the spinal cord.
poliomyelitis Inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord.
neuropathy Disease of nerves.
polyneuritis Inflammation of many (spinal) nerves, causing paralysis, pain, and wasting of muscles.
Guillain-Barré syndrome (sequela of certain viral infections with paresthesias and muscular weakness)
cerebellopontine Pertaining to the cerebellum and the pons.
Radiculopathy Disease of the spinal nerve roots.
radiculitis Inflammation of nerve roots.
thalamic Pertaining to the thalamus.
intrathecal injection Placement of substances (medications) into the subarachnoid space.
vagal Pertaining to the vagus (10th cranial) nerve.
analgesia Condition of no sensation of pain (usually accompanied by sedation without loss of consciousness).
anesthetics Agents that reduce or eliminate sensation.
Hypalgesia Diminished sensation to pain.
Neuralgia Nerve pain.
Cephalgia Headache (head pain).
causalgia Burning sensation of pain (in the skin); usually following injury to sensory fibers of a peripheral nerve.
comatose In a state of coma (profound unconsciousness from which one cannot be roused; may be due to trauma, disease, or action of ingested toxic substance).
anesthesia Condition of no nervous sensation.
Hyperesthesia Excessive sensitivity to touch, pain, or other sensory stimuli.
Paresthesia An abnormal sensation such as numbness, tingling, or pricking.
bradykinesia Slowness of movement.
Hyperkinesis Condition of excessive movement (muscular activity).
Dyskinesia Involuntary, spasmodic movements.
Akinetic Pertaining to without movement.
epilepsy Chronic disorder marked by attacks of brain dysfunction due to excessive firing of nervous impulses.
narcolepsy Sudden, uncontrollable episodes of sleep (seizures of sleep).
Dyslexia Disorder of reading, writing, or learning (despite the ability to see and recognize letters).
Hemiparesis Slight paralysis in either the right or left half of the body.
Aphasia Condition of inability to speak.
hemiplegia Paralysis in half of the body.
Paraplegia Paralysis in the lower portion of the body.
Quadriplegia Paralysis of all four limbs of the body.
apraxia Inability to carry out familiar purposeful movements (in the absence of paralysis or sensory or motor impairment).
Neurasthenia Condition of lack of nerve strength; nervous exhaustion and weakness.
syncopal Pertaining to syncope (fainting).
Ataxia No muscular coordination (often caused by cerebellar dysfunction)
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brain stem
Alzheimer disease brain disorder marked by gradual, progressive mental deterioration; personality changes; and impairment of daily function
Huntington disease Hereditary disorder marked by degenerative changes in the cerebrum leading to abrupt involuntary movements and mental deterioration
Hydrocephalus Abnormal accumulation of CSF in the ventricles of the brain
Parkinson disease Degeneration of neurons in the basal ganglia; occurring later in life and leading to tremors, weakness, and slowness of movement
Tourette syndrome Involuntary, spasmodic, twitching movements; uncontrollable vocal sounds
Migraine Severe, recurrent, unilateral, vascular headache
Cerebral contusion Bruising of brain tissue as a result of direct trauma to the head
Cerebral concussion Temporary brain dysfunction after injury; usually clearing within 24 hours
Created by: cudawn