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ANP1040 CH6

Name the 6 functions of the skin.
What type of protein does the epidermis contain that gives is its durability? Keratin pg 181
If the skin carries out the first step of Vitamin D synthesis, what organs complete the process? Kidneys & liver pg 181
Why is Vitamin D synthesis important? It is needed for bone development & maintenance. pg 181
Where areas do you find most of our sensory receptors in the skin? Face, palms, fingers, soles, nipples, & genitals, fewer on the back, on knees & elbows. pg 182
What are the cutaneous nerve endings that monitor body surface temp called? Thermoreceptors pg 182
How does the skin respond to hot and cold? Explain in detail. Cold = constricts blood vessels (vasoconstriction) in the dermis to keep blood deeper in the body for warmth. Excessive heat = Dialates blood vessels (vasodilation) to increase blood flow to surface to lose heat. pg 182
If vasodilation is insufficient, what else does the body do to cool the body? As a back up response to excessive heat, sweat glands release perspiration. The evaporation of sweat has a cooling effect. pg 182
Describe the histological make up of the epidermis? Made up of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. pg 182
How does the epidermis get its nutrients? Diffusion from underlying connective tissue. pg 183
Name the 5 types of cells that compose the epidermis. - Stem cells - Keratinocytes - Melanocytes - Tactile (Merkel) cells - Dendritic (Langerhans) cells
Where are stem cells found in the epidermis? Found in the deepest layer of the epidermis called the stratum basale.
What is the majority cell in the epidermis and what is its function? Keratinocytes. Synthesize keratin.
Where are melanocytes found and what do they do? Found in the stratum basale of the epidermis and synthesize brown to black pigment called melanin.
What protective advantage does pigment provide? Protects our DNA from UV radiation.
What are Tactile (Merkel) cell? Receptors for touch located in the basal layer of the epidermis.
Where are "Dendritic (Langerhans) Cells" located & what do they do? Found in the stratum spinosum & stratum granulosum of the epidermis. Immune cells that originated in the liver & migrated to the skin to stand guard against microbes, toxins, & other pathogens that penetrate the skin.
Besides the skin, where else does "Dendritic (Langerhans) Cells" migrate? Epithelial of the oral cavity, esophagus & vagina.
True / False: The epidermis is made of of living cells. False - It consists of dead cells packed w/ tough protein called keratin.
True / False: The epidermis is supplied by blood vessels. False. Lacks blood vessels.
Name the 5 layers of the epidermis.
What type of tissue regenerates more rapidly than any other area in the body? epidermis
Excessive keratinocytes multiplication is called: ___________________. calluses or corns
What type of tissue makes up the dermis & what is it composed of? Connective tissue (consists mainly of collagen and some elastic, reticular fibers, fibroblasts, other fibrous connective tissue)
The dermis is well supplied by what 3 things? - blood vessels - cutaneous glands - nerve endings
Where are hair follicles & nail roots embedded? The Dermis
What are the muscles called that contract involuntarily in response to stimuli such as fear, cold and touch? This response causes the hairs to stand up. Piloerector muscles
The finger-like extensions (upward waves) of the boundary between epidermis & dermis are called __________________. Dermal papillae
The finger-like extensions (downward waves) of the boundary between epidermis & dermis are called __________________. Epidermal ridges
What are the wavy boundaries on the fingertips called that leave fingerprints on the things we touch? friction ridges
2 zones of dermis
Another name for the hypodermis is _____________. Subcutaneous tissue
Where is most injections given & why? Subcutaneous (hypodermis) tissue because it is very vascular for quicker absorption.
What are the functions of subcutaneous? Energy reservoir, insulation
Created by: shaston001