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BIO205 - Ch 5 - Microbial Metabolism - RioSalado - AZ

Chemoautotrophs CO2, iron, sulfer, hydrogen gas, & ammonia
Catabolic reactions __. produce energy
Anabolic reactions __. use energy
Catabolic reactions are generally __ reactions and __. hydrolytic - reactions that use H2O to break bonds; exergonic - produce more energy than they consume.
Example of catabolism. When cells break down sugars into CO2 & water.
Anabolism reactions are __ reactions & involve __ synthesis & are __. biosynthetic - dehydration (reactions that release water); endergonic - consume more energy than they release.
Examples of anabolic reaction. Formation of proteins from amino acids & mucleic acids from nucleotides.
__ reactions provide building blocks for __ reactions. catabolic - anabolic
__ stores energy derived from catabolic reactions. ATP
__ reactions are coupled to ATP breakdown. Anabolic
__ reactions are coupled to ATP synthesis. Catabolic
A cell's metabolic pathways are determined by its _. enzymes - which are determined by cell's genetic makeup.
3 factors that determine if collision will cause chemical reaction. (velocities of colliding particles, (2) their energy, (3) chemical configurations.
The collision energy required for chemical reaction is its __. activation energy - energy required to disrupt stable electron configuration of specific molecule to rearrange electrons.
The frequency of collisions containing sufficient energy to bring about reaction. Reaction rate - depends on the number of reactant molecules at or above activation energy level.
Two ways to increase reaction rate. Raise temperature - molecules move faster & raise pressure increases concentration.
__ increases reaction rate without raising temperature. enzymes
The __ formed by temporary binding of enzyme & reactants lowers activation energy of reaction. enzyme - substrate complex
The specificity of enzymes is made possible by their __. structures
Turn over number describes? Max number of substrate molecules an enzyme molecule can convert to products each second.
Protein portion of enzyme. apoenzyme
Nonprotein portion of enzyme. cofactor - iron, zinc, magnesium, calcium, etc.
Apoenzymes are __ by themselves & must be __ by cofactors. inactive - activated
Together, the apoenzymes & cofactor form a __. holoenzyme - whole, activated enzyme.
Many coenzymes are derrived from __. vitamins - like NAD+ & NADP+ - both come from vitamin B niacin & are electron carriers.
Factors that influence enzyme activity. Temperature, pH, substrate, concentration, presence/absence of inhibitors.
Why is there a reduced reaction rate beyond optimal temperature? The enzyme denatures - loses its 3-D structure.
Why does pH alter enzyme function? H+ & OH- compete with hydrogen & ionic bonds & causes denaturation.
How do competitive inhibitors operate? Bind reversibility or irreversibly with enzyme & fill active site of enzymes.
Allosteric inhibition noncompetitive inhibitor binds to allosteric site of enzyme, not substrate active site.
What does allosteric inhibition do to active site of enzyme? Causes active site to change shape and become nonfunctional or functional.
Allosteric inhibitors play a role in __. feedback inhibition
Feedback inhibition generally acts on __. the first enzyme in a metabolic pathway.
ribozyme Unique type of RNA that functions as catalyst and act on RNA strands.
__ is the removal of electrons from atom or molecule, that often produces energy. oxidation
__ gaining one or more electrons. reduction
redox reaction Oxidation and reduction reactions are always coupled - one substance is oxidized & another is simulationeously reduced.
Most biological oxidations involve loss of __ atoms and are called __ reactions. hydrogen - dehydrogenation
Glucose has many __ atoms & are highly __, containing a large amount of potential energy. hydrogen atoms - reduced.
Much of the energy released during oxi-red reaction is trapped in cell by __. formation of ATP - one phosphate added to ADP with input of energy.
The symbol "~" designates? A high energy bond that is readily broken to release usable energy.
3 mechanisms of phosphorylation. (1) substrate - level, (2) oxidative, & (3) photophosphorylation.
Substrate-level phosphorylation ATP generated when phosphate directly transferred to ADP
Oxidative phosphorylation Electrons transferred from organic compounds to carriers (NAD+ & FAD) - electron transport chain - releases energy to generate ATP from ADP.
Electron transport chain uses which type of non-photosynthetic phosphorylation mechanism? Oxidative phosphorylation
photophosphorylation in photosynthetic cells - water & CO2 plus pigments - convert light energy to ATP & NADPH using electron transportation chain.
Almost every reaction in metabolic pathway is __. catalyzed by a specific enzyme
Most organisms __ as their primary source of cellular energy. oxidize carbohydrates - carbohydrate catabolism
Glycolysis is the oxidation of __ to __. glucose to pyruvic acid
Krebs cycle is oxidation of __ to __. acetyl CoA - CO2
In electron transport chain __ and __ are oxidized. NADH & FADH2
Embden-Meyerhof pathway glycolysis
Net gain of __ molecules of ATP for each glucose that is oxidized. 2
Pentose phosphate pathway Operates in bacteria alongside glycolysis - net gain of one ATP from glucose oxidized.
Entner-doudoroff pathway in bacteria - gram-negative
decarboxylation losing 1 molecule of CO2
Types of chem reaction in Krebs cycle decarboxylation, oxidation-reduction, & substrate-level phosphorylation
The CO2 we exhale is due to? CO2 produced from Krebs cycle in most cells.
What are the most important products of Krebs? NADH & FADH2 - because they contain most of the energy orginally stored in glucose.
3 classes of carrier molecules in ETC. Flavoproteins, cytochromes & coenzyme Q
Function of transport chain is to? Release energy from higher-energy compounds to lower-energy compounds.
The buildup of __ on one side of membrane provides energy for generation of ATP by chemiosmotic mechanism. protons
Mechanism of ATP synthesis using ETC is __. chemiosmosis - proton diffusion across membrane releases energy & is used to synthesize ATP.
Where do chemiosmosis occur in eukaryotes? Prokaryotes? Inner mitochondrial membrane - ATP synthase at plasma membrane.
Where does chemiosmosis occur in photophosphorylation? The thylakoid membrane.
Total number of ATP generated from chemiosmosis? 34
Total number of ATP generated from aerobic respiration among prokaryotes? 38
Total number of ATP generated from aerobic respiration among eukaryotes? 36
Why less ATP generated in eukaryote than prokaryote? Some energy loss at mitochondrial membrane - prokaryotes don't use mitochondrial membrane.
Name some final acceptors for anaerobic respiration. nitrate ion (NO3-), sulfate (SO4^2-), carbonate (CO3^2-)
Fermentation Releases energy from sugars or organic molecules without oxygen, no Krebs or ETC, & small ATP result - generates NAD+ & NADP+ to continue glycolysis.
In fermentation, ATP is generated __. only during glycolysis
homolactic microbes that produce only lactic acid through fermentation.
heterolactic microbes that produce only lactic acid and alcohols.
deamination Breaking down amino acids so they can be catabolized.
carbon fixation synthesis of sugar using carbon atoms from CO2 gas - necessary for photosynthesis.
light-dependent reaction - photophosphorylation light absorbed by chlorophyll in thylakoids, ETC, & ATP converted to ATP by chemiosmosis.
Calvin-Bensen cycle - light -independent reaction. CO2 is fixed to synthesize sugars
Which molecule is used to synthesize sugars in Calvin-Benson cycle? CO2
Chemotrophs Depend on oxidation - reduction reaction for energy - most animal, fungi, protozoa, & bacteria
heterotrophs feed? on others
autotrophs feed? themselves using CO2
saphrophytes live on dead organic matter
parasites derive nutrients from living host
amination adding an amine group to pyruvic acid to make an amino acid - building blocks of life.
Joining of amino acids to form proteins involves? dehydration synthesis & requires ATP
Amphibolic pathway Metabolic pathways used for both anabolism & catabolism - dual purpose.
Created by: Ladystorm