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Chapter 12

microbiology

QuestionsAnswers
Q: What is encystment? A: Encystment is the formation of an outer covering that protects from unfavorable factors (a cyst IS the dormant form).
Q: True or false? Parasites can change their surface antigens faster than the host’s ability to make antibodies. A: True!
Q: In which kingdom would you find mushrooms, molds, and yeasts? A: Kingdom fungi.
Q: In which kingdom would you find algae and protozoa? A: Kingdom protista.
Q: In which kingdom would you find helminths? A: Kingdom animal.
Q: Are algae unicellular or multicellular? A: Unlike protozoa, algae can be either unicellular or multicellular.
Q: Are protozoa unicellular or multicellular/ A: Protozoa are UNICELLULAR! She has made it clear she will be asking this on the exam.
Q: FYI… Not only are protozoa unicellular, they also lack chlorophyll. A: (blank)
Q: Where would you find protozoa? A: Protozoa are free living in marine & fresh water as well as in terrestrial environments.
Q: In what form can protozoa cause disease? A: In the vegetative form.
Q: Can protozoa exist as cysts when conditions are unfavorable? A: Yes they can.
Q: What is the name for the vegetative form of protozoa? A: Trophozoite.
Q: Protozoa are polymorphic. What does that mean? A: A single protozoan species can be found at different stages of life cycle (ameba, flagellate, or cyst).
Q: What is the protozoan cell wall made of? A: Actually, protozoa lack a cell wall.
Q: How do protozoa maintain their shape? A: Most maintain their shape using the underlying ectoplasm.
Q: How do protozoa feed? A: Via phagocytosis or pinocytosis.
Q: How do protozoa replicate? A: Protozoa often replicate via binary fission but some reproduce by multiple fission or schizogony.
Q: What is schizogony? A: Schizogony is when the protozoan nucleus divides multiple times prior to individual daughter cells being produced (malaria divides in this fashion).
Q: True or false? Protozoa can have more than one host? A: True! Protozoan hosts range from algae to humans.
Q: How are protozoa classified? A: Protozoa are classified by their mode of locomotion.
Q: Protozoa are classified into four major groups. What are they? A: Actually, she said we don’t need to memorize these but they are: Sarcomastigophora (pseudopods), Apicomplexa (non-motile), Ciliophora (cilia), and Microspora (microsporidium).
Q: What type of disease is Kala-azar, cutaneus, mucocutaneous, or visceral? A: Kala-azar a disease of the viscera caused by the Sarcomastigophora protozoa Leishmania.
Q: What is the vector of Leishmania? A: The sandfly (phlebotomus).
Q: What is the mode of transmission for MOST protozoa? A: Fecal-oral.
Q: Leishmania causes three types of disease. What are they? A: Cutaneus, mucocutaneous, or visceral (AKA Kala-azar).
Q: Of the three types of diseases caused by Leishmania which is most severe? A: The visceral (or systemic) form: Kala-azar.
Q: In Kala-azar, what is infected? A: Macrophages (immune cells) are infected which in turn carry it to the spleen, liver, and bon marrow.
Q: What causes the most common type of protozoan infection in the USA? A: Giardia lamblia which causes giardiasis (symptoms include acute or chronic diarrhea and bulky stool).
Q: This is found in contaminated mountain stream water and has a cystic form that is resistant to chlorine. A: Giardia lamblia.
Q: Men serve as the reservoir (asymptomatic carriers) of this sexually transmitted disease. A: Trichomoniasis vaginitis which is caused by Trichomonas vaginalis.
Q: This protozoan is found in blood or lymph fluid and is transmitted by bites or feces of blood-feeding insects. A: Hemoflagellates.
Q: What causes African sleeping sickness? A: Trypanosoma brucei.
Q: What is the vector for Trypanosoma brucei? A: The tsetse fly.
Q: The tsetse fly is responsible for spreading what disease? A: African sleeping sickness.
Q: Is African sleeping disease fatal? A: Yes, it can be.
Q: What causes Chagas disease? A: Trypanosoma cruzi.
Q: What is another name for Chagas disease? A: American Trypanosomiasis.
Q: What is the vector for Trypanosoma cruzi? A: The reduviidae (sometimes called “kissing bug”)
Q: Trypanosoma brucei invades the _______ while Trypanosoma cruzi attacks the _______. A: CNS, heart.
Q: True or false? Chagas is a common disease. A: False! In rare cases, an individual might contract Chagas disease, a form of African sleeping sickness.
Q: Define trophozoite. A: Trophozoite is the active feeding cycle of sarcodina (remember sarcodina are those protozoa the move with pseudopods).
Q: We discussed two type of sarcodina. What are they? A: Entamoeba histolytica and Naegleria fowleri.
Q: What causes amoebic dysentery? A: Entamoeba histolytic.
Q: What causes primary amebic meningoencephalitis? A: Naegleria fowleri.
Q: What is primary amebic meningoencephalitis? A: Inflammation of the brain and meninges.
Q: There are four forms of Plasmodium we discussed. What are they? A: Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae.
Q: If a person contracts malignant tertian malaria, how often will they have a fever and what was the most likely cause. A: Malignant tertian malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum and the person would have a fever every 36 to 48 hours.
Q: Black water disease refers to what? A: Malignant tertian malaria.
Q: If a person contracts benign tertian malaria, how often will they have a fever and what was the most likely cause? A: Benign tertian malaria is caused by Plasmodium vivax and the person would have a fever every other day.
Q: If a person contracts ovale tertian, how often will they have a fever and what was most likely the cause? A: Ovale tertian is cased by Plasmodium ovale and the person would have a fever every other day.
Q: If a person contracts quartan, how often will they have a fever and what was most likely the cause? A: Quartan is caused by Plasmodium malariae and the person would have a fever every THIRD day of 72 hours.
Q: Of the four forms of Plasmodium sp. which is most common in the USA? A: Plasmodium vivax.
Q: What is the important thing to remember about Toxoplasma gondii? A: It is asymptomatic in most humans except in immunocompromised individual and it can CROSS THE PLACENTA to cause CNS damage to the fetus.
Q: Name the definitive host and intermediate host for Toxoplasma gondii. A: Cats are the definitive host and humans are the intermediate host.
Q: What is the definitive host of Cryptosporidium parvum? A: A range of domestic animals including dogs, pigs, and cattle.
Q: What is the ONLY known ciliate to cause human disease? A: Balantidium coli.
Q: Where would you find fungi? A: Fungi are ubiquitous! They can survive in a wide range of environments. In my notes I wrote, high salt! high sugar! moist! acidic!
Q: I digest dead organic matter and waste… what am I? A: A saprophyte.
Q: I obtain nutrients from the tissue of other living organisms… what am I? A: A parasite.
Q: I obtain nutrients from living and non-living organic sources… what am I? A: A facultative parasite.
Q: How are fungi classified? A: According to the nature of sexual/asexual stages in their life cycles.
Q: What are the four classifications of fungi discussed in this chapter? A: Zygomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Deuteromycota, and Chytridiomycota.
Q: Which classification(s) of fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually? A: Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota.
Q: Penicillin is classified as Deuteromycota. Does it reproduce sexually or asexually? A: Asexually.
Q: True or false? Chytridiomycota only causes disease in plants. A: True!
Q: Is yeast unicellular or multicellular? A: Unicellular.
Q: How does yeast reproduce? A: Some by binary fission and others by budding.
Q: Mold is a filamentous form of fungi. What is it called when a single filament is present? A: Hypha (plural, hyphae)
Q: Mold is a filamentous form of fungi. What is it called when a collection of hyphae are growing in one place? A: Mycelium.
Q: How do molds absorb nutrients? A: Hyphae absorb nutrients and release enzymes which break down material into readily absorbed smaller organic compounds.
Q: What are dimorphic fungi? A: They exist either as yeast cells or mycelia depending on the environment (they exist as yeast @ 37 degrees Celsius).
Q: FYI… Many fungi that cause human disease are dimorphic. A: (blank)
Q: What causes valley fever? A: Valley fever, AKA coccidioidomycosis, is caused by Coccidioides immitis.
Q: What are human fungal diseases referred to as? A: Mycoses.
Q: True or false? Some fungi produce carcinogenic toxins. A: True! Aspergillus species produces Aflatoxin.
Q: Histoplasma capsulatum causes what? A: Histoplasmosis, AKA spelunker’s disease.
Q: Coccidioides immitis causes what? A: Coccidioidomycosis, AKA Valley Fever.
Q: Name the disease and organism responsible… Symptoms include: Thick, white cheesy vaginal discharge. A: Vulvovaginitis caused by Candidiasis albicans.
Q: Name the disease and organism responsible… Symptoms include: Cracks in the corner of the mouth and whitish or yellowish patches on the lips, tongue, palate, and inside of cheek. A: Oral “thrush” caused by Candidiasis albicans.
Q: We know fungal diseases are referred to as mycoses, but they are also referred to by the parts of the body they affect. What is an infection of hairs, skin, or nails? A: Superficial mycoses.
Q: We know fungal diseases are referred to as mycoses, but they are also referred to by the parts of the body they affect. What is an infection of respiratory tract or the skin and subcutaneous tissues? A: Intermediate mycoses.
Q: We know fungal diseases are referred to as mycoses, but they are also referred to by the parts of the body they affect. What is an infection of tissues deep within the body? A: Systemic mycoses.
Q: Dutch elm disease and wheat rust are fungal diseases of what? A: Plants.
Q: Match the arthropod vector to the disease… Mosquitoes: A: Malaria.
Q: Match the arthropod vector to the disease… Fleas: A: Plague
Q: Match the arthropod vector to the disease… Lice: A: Trench fever, epidemic typhus, and relapsing fever.
Q: Match the arthropod vector to the disease… Ticks: A: Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Lyme disease.
Q: Match the arthropod vector to the disease… Mites: A: Scabies.
Q: Match the arthropod vector to the disease… Dust mites: A: Allergies and asthma.
Q: Define helminthology. A: The ‘Science of Worms’.
Q: Are helminths unicellular or multicellular? A: Multicellular.
Q: True or false? Some helminths are hermaphrodites. A: True!
Q: For most helminths the definitive host is what? A: Humans.
Q: True or false? Some helminths have two intermediate hosts but most have one. A: True!
Q: Nematodes are also called what? A: Roundworms.
Q: Trematodes (flatworms) are also called what? A: Flukes.
Q: Cestodes (flatworms) are also called what? A: Tapeworms (these are hermaphrodites).
Created by: PCC Microbiology