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BIO205 - Ch 4 - Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells - RioSalado - AZ

All living cells - what 2 catagories? Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes
Structural characteristics of prokaryotes. DNA in single, circular arranged chromosome w/o membrane - lack membrane - enclosed organelles
Structural characteristics of eukaryotes. Multiple chromosomes in membrane-enclosed nucleus.
Bacteria & Archaea are? Prokaryotes
Protozoa & fungi are? Eukaryotes
What main difference is there between prokaryote & eukaryote? Structure of cell walls & membranes, & absence of organelles.
5 distinguishing characteristics of prokaryotes. (1) No DNA membrane, (2) DNA w/no histones, (3) lack membrane-enclosed organelles, (4) cell wall w/polysaccharide peptidoglycan, & (5) binary fission.
Binary fission DNA copied & cell splits into 2 - prokaryotes - fewer processes than eukaryote cell division.
5 distinguishing characteristics of eukaryotes. (1) DNA in nucleus w/membrane & multiple chromosomes, (2) DNA associated w/histone, (3) membrane-enclosed organelles, (4) cell walls chemically simple, (5) mitosis.
3 basic shapes of bacteria Coccus (berries), bacillus (rod-shaped), & spiral
Diplococci Cocci that remain in pairs after dividing.
Streptococci Cocci that divide & are attached in chainlike pattern.
Tetrads Cocci that divide in 2 planes & remain in groups of 4.
Sarcinae Cocci in 3 planes & remain in cubelike groups of 8.
Staphylococci Cocci in multiple plains & form grapelike clusters.
Why are there fewer groupings of bacilli than cocci? Because bacilli only divide across short axis
Diplobacilli Appear in pairs after division
Streptobacilli Appear in chains after division
Coccobacilli Oval bacilli that look like cocci.
Bacillus cells often form __. long, twisted chains of cells.
What is the difference between bacillus & Bacillus? One is bacterial shape & one is genus.
Vibrios Spiral bacteria that look like curved rod.
Spirilla Spiral bacteria that have helical shape
Spirochetes Spiral bacteria that have helical shape & are flexible - move by axial filaments.
Monomorphic Maintain a single shape
What prokaryotes are monomorphic? Bacteria
Structures external in prokayotic cell wall. Glycocalyx, flagella, axial filaments, finbriae & pili.
Glycocalyx "Sugar coat" - secreted on surface of prokaryotes - viscous - if firm, then called capsule.
Capsule Firmly attached sugar coat around prokaryote that can be determined by using negative staining.
Slime layer Loosely attached glycocalyx (sugar coat) around prokaryote.
Capsules are important in contributing to bacterial __. virulence - degree of disease causing ability.
Capsules often protect pathogenic bacteria __. From phagocytosis by cells of host.
Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) Glycocalyx made of sugars - enables bacteria to survive by attaching to various surfaces.
Atrichous Bacteria that lack flagella
Monotrichous Single polar flagellum
3 basic parts of flagellum Filament, hook, basal body
Protein that makes up flagellum filament. flagellin
Difference between prokaryote & eukaryote flagella. Most bacteria lack membrane/sheath covering it.
What anchors flagellum to cell wall & plasma membrane? Movement away from/toward a particular stimulus.
How do spirochetes & spirilla differ? Spirochetes move using axial filaments/endoflagella.
Endoflagella Axial filaments - bundles of fibrils that arise at ends of cell beneath outer sheath & spiral around cell.
Axial filaments propel spirochetes __. in a spiral motion like a cork screw.
fimbriae Appendage on bacterial cell used to adhere to surfaces - helps colonization.
pili Longer than fimbrae & join bacterial cells for transfer of DNA.
conjugation Process by which bacteria use pili to transfer DNA from one cell to another.
What is the function of fimbriae? to adhere to surfaces
Almost all prokaryotes have __. cell walls
Major function of cell wall. Prevent rupture when water pressure in cell is greater than outside.
What is used to differentiate major types of bacteria? The chemical composition of the cell wall.
Gram-positive cell walls contain? Many layers of peptidoglycan.
Gram-negative cell walls do not contain __. teichoic acids
Which is more susceptible to mechanical breakage? Gram - or +? Gram negative because they only contain a small amount of peptidoglycan.
The outer membrane of gram-negative provides barrier against? Certain antibiotics & digestive enzymes.
Smallest known bacteria outside living host. Mycoplasmas - pass through most filters.
Archaea may lack cell walls but definately lack __. Peptidoglycan - have pseudomurein instead.
Acid-fast bacteria cell walls contain what lipid? Mycolic acid - resists dyes because it is waxy.
Why are prokaryote plasma membranes less rigid than eukaryotes? Because they lack sterols.
Chromatophores Infolding of plasma membrane where pigment located in photoautotrophic bacteria.
How does simple diffusion differ from facilitated? Both don't need ATP, but facilitated uses transporter.
What is osmosis? Net movement of solvent molecules across selectively permeable membrane from high to low concentration of solvents.
In isotonic solution, movement is? No net movement of water
In hypotonic solution, movment is? Water moves into cell & may cause cell to burst.
In hypertonic solution, movment is? Water moves out of cell, causing shrinkage.
Osmotic lysis Water moving into a cell & it bursts.
Plasmolysis Water moving out of cell & it shrinks.
Osmotic pressure Pressure required to prevent movement of pure water into solution containing some solvents.
Most bacteria live in __ solutions. hypotonic
Group translocation Only in prokaryotes - substance is chemically altered as it passes through plasma membrane & can no longer leave - high energy PEP.
Difference between prokaryote & eukaryote ribosomes regarding antibotic therapy. The differences allow the cell to be killed by the antibiotic, yet leave eukaryote host unaffected.
Inclusions Reserve deposits in prokaryote cytoplasm of nutrients - good ID tag.
Volutin Reserve of inorganic phosphate for ATP.
Nucleoid Nuclear area of bacterial cell containing bacterial chromosome.
Plasmids Circular DNA molecules that replicate independent of chromosomal DNA - genetically not crucial to bacterial survival except during adverse conditions.
Endospores Highly durable dehydrated cells - almost seed-like
Under what conditions are endospores formed by bacteria? When essential nutrients are depletes in certain gram-positive bacteria.
Sporogenesis/sporulation Process of endospore formation
Germination When endospore returns to health later - water enters.
What kingdoms contain eukaryote organisms. Alge, protozoa, fungi, plants, & animals.
What is antibiotic significance of eukaryote cells not containing peptidoglycan? Penicillins & cephalosporins act against peptidoglycan & therefore don't affect eukaryote cells.
How do plasma membranes differ between eukaryote and prokaryote. Prokaryote lack sterols and carbs.
cytosol refers to fluid portion of cytoplasm
cytoplasmic streaming Movement of cytoplasm in cell that helps distribute nutrients & move a cell over a surface.
Many enzymes found in cytoplasmic fluid of prokaryote are sequestered in __ of eukaryote. Organelles
Nuclear pores control __. Movement of substances between nucleus & cytoplasm.
Nucleoli/nucleolus Condensed regions of chromosomes where rRNA is being synthesized.
Cisterns Flattened membrane sacs of ER.
ER contains __ & synthesizes __. unique enzymes - phospholipids, fats & sterols.
What are the functions of golgi complex? Package substances in vesicles for transport.
Cristae Outer mitochondrial membrane
__ are organelles that can reproduce more or less on their own. mitochondria
Many of the metabolic steps involved in cellular respiration are concentrated in __. matrix of mitochondria
Chloroplast Organelle in algae & green plants that contain chlorophyll & enzymes
Chlorophyll is contained in what sacs? thylakoids
__ in plants can reproduce on own like mitochondria. chloroplasts
How are mitochondria similar to prokaryote cells? How they reproduce - increase in size - then divide in two.
peroxisomes Contain enzymes that can oxidize various organic substances - aminoacids & fatty acids.
Peroxisomes protect other cell parts from __. H2O2 - hydrogen peroxide
Centrosome Centrioles & pericentricular material - miotic spindle organizing center.
Endosymbiotic theory Larger bacterial cell lost their cell walls & engulfed smaller bacterial cells & so eukaryotes formed.
Similar to bacterial cells, both mitochondria & chloroplasts contain __. circular DNA & can reproduce on own.
Created by: Ladystorm