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68WM6 Phase 2

Pediatrics Exam 11

QuestionAnswer
When children want to engage in tasks and activities they can carry through to completion and learn to compete and cooperate with others to learn rules and consequences, they are at what stage of development according to Erikson? Industry vs. Inferiority
Erikson states that Trust vs. Mistrust period begins when? Birth to 1 year.
Erikson states that Initiative vs. Guilt period begins when? 3 to 6 years old.
Erikson states that Industry vs. Inferiority period begins when? 6 to 12 years old.
Erikson states that the Identity vs. Role Confusion period begins when? 12 to 18 years old.
Erikson states that Autonomy vs. Shame period begins when? 1 to 3 years old.
Children that struggle to fit in the roles they have played and those they hope to play with current roles and fashion adopted by their peers is what stage according to Erikson? Identity vs. Role Confusion.
At what stage according to Erikson, does a child begin to develop at conscience? Initiative vs. Guilt.
What types of fractures are crosswise at right angles to the long bone? Transverse.
What type of fracture can disrupt the growth of bone? Epiphyseal Plate Fracture.
What type of fracture is not common in children and if seen can indicate child abuse? Spiral.
What is the most common osteoporosis syndrome in children that is an inherited syndrome characterized by excessive fractures and bone deformities? Osteogenesis Imperfecta.
What fractures are slanting but straight, between a horizontal and perpendicular direction? Oblique.
What are the five P's used in the assessment of a fracture? Pain - Pulse - Pallor - Paresthesia distal to the fracture - Paralysis distal to the fracture.
The normal growth of the skull occurs in what direction to the line of the suture? Perpendicular.
Malignant growth that occurs from the marrow, usually of long bones but can develop in the skull or flat bones or the trunk is known as what? Ewing's Sarcoma.
Infection of the bone is known as? Osteomyelitis.
Fractures that are slanting and circular, twisting around the bone shaft are known as? Spiral.
When does Ewing's Sarcoma usually occur in a persons life? Puberty.
What is the primary site of metastasis for osteosarcoma? Lungs.
Children that have had radiation therapy or retinoblastoma are at higher risk for what? Osteosarcoma.
When children are not playful but instead focus their attention on anything that strikes their interest; they day dream, or fiddle with clothing or other objects, is called what type of child play? Unoccupied behavior.
What type of child play do children take pleasure in relationships with people? Social affective play.
What begins in late infancy and is the predominant form of play in the preschool child? Dramatic or Pretend play.
After the infant has developed the ability to grasp and manipulate, they demonstrate their abilities through what type of child play where repeating the same actions over and over again is the key? Skill play.
Which form of croup can develop into a respiratory emergency? Acute Croup - Laryngoytracheobronchitis.
RSV is the most common cause of what in infants? Viral pneumonia.
Inflammation of the lungs in which the alveoli become filled with exudate is known as what? Pneumonia.
How long can RSV survive on a countertop, tissues or soap bars? 6 hours.
What type of asthmas occurs less than two times a week? Mild intermittent asthma.
What asthma occurs greater than once a week, but less than once a day? Mild persistant asthma.
If you are having an continual asthma symptoms throughout the day as well as frequent night time symptoms you might have this type of asthma? Severe persistant asthma.
Asthma that occurs daily but only only 3 to 4 times a month nightly is classified as this type of asthma? Moderate persistant asthma.
A chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways is defined as what? Asthma.
What are the four categories of asthma? Mild intermittent asthma. Mild persistant asthma. Moderate persistant asthma. Severe persistant asthma.
What is the treatment for refractive errors? Corrective lenses.
What is the most common congenital malignant intraocular tumor caused by either a mutation in the gene, inherited, or occur sporadically? Retinoblastoma.
Lazy eye is also know as? Amblyopia.
What does myopia mean? Near sightedness.
What does hyperopia mean? Far sightedness.
What does emmetropia mean? Normal sight.
What are two refractive errors that occur when light rays are bent and fall in front or behind the retina? Myopia and hyperopia.
What are the most common types of disorders in children? Refractive errors.
What is the goal of medical intervention when a child has strabismus? There is no treatment that will perfectly realign the eyes, however the goal is to realign them as close as possible to normal.
Rotating the head of a child quickly from one side to the other to see if the eyes move together in one direction opposite to the heads rotation is known as? Doll's eyes.
Legal blindness is considered having the visual acuity of? 20/100 or less and a visual field of 20 degrees or less.
A condition that can affect one or both eyes and result in two images instead of one being received by the brain because the eye muscles do not coordinate with each other is known as what? Strabismus.
You should not attempt the dolls eyes test until when? Until the cervical spine has been cleared.
When does dealing with a patient with ICP what should you do before suctioning them? Hyperventilate.
What are the most common signs and symtoms of a child with a brain tumor? Headache upon wakening and vomiting unrelated to feeding.
What is the most common tumor in children? Brain tumor.
What is the most common head injury? Concussion.
Subdural hemorrhage is blood between what two linings? The dura and the cerebrum.
Blood between the dura and skull is described as what type of hemorrhage? Epidural hemorrhage.
Confusion and amnesia are common hallmark signs of? Concussions.
Absence of Doll's eyes suggests dysfunction of the what? Brain stem and/or oculomotor nerve.
A state of consciousness from which the patient can not be aroused despite painful stimuli is known as what? A coma.
What is the earliest indicator of improvement of deterioration in neurological exams? Assessment of consciousness.
To inspect the ear canal in an older child, what is the proper method of pulling the pinna? Up and back.
When should a child be walking and if not, they should be referred to a specialist? 18 months.
What referes to the concepts and attitudes one has towards their own body? Body image.
what can lead to sluggish intellectual and psychomotor responses, decreased communication skills, increased fantasizing, and even hallucinations or disorientation due to the effects on immobility? Monotony.
The value one places upon themselves and the overall evaluation of oneself is known as what? Self esteem.
The developmental stage at which children are better able to cope with separation and express feelings as irritability, withdrawal, rejection of siblings or aggression towards parents, deals with what tupe of children? School age children.
At what ages should a child be walking up the stairs, jumping using both feet, and stand on one foot for a second or two? 2-2 1/2 years old.
A child in what developmental stage protest using quiet methods and constantly ask questions but can become aggressive and or hit and refuse to cooperate during activities. Preschooler.
What developmental stage of a child will attempt to bargain with parents so they will stay because separation anxiety is a huge stressor. Infants and toddlers
What are three phases of separation anxiety? Protest. Despair. Denial and/or detachment.
What should be included in your musculoskeletal assessment of a child? Observation - Palpation - Range of motion - Gait assessment.
What are treatments for stains and sprains? RICE - Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation.
The force of stress on a ligament is so great as to displace the normal position of the opposing bone ends in termed what? Dislocation.
Tearing of subcutaneous tissue resulting in hemorrhage, edema, and pain is termed what? Contusion.
Ligaments partially/completely torn or stretched away from the bone causing damage to blood vessels, muscles and nerves is known as what? Sprain.
A microscopic tear in the muscle or tendon over time resulting in edema and pain in known as what? Strain.
What are some signs and symptoms of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis? High fever. Transient rash. Elevated sed rate. Enlarged liver and spleen
An autoimmune inflammatory disease causing inflammation of joints and other tissue is known as what? Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.
What are patients with Pauciarticular Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis more at risk for then the other Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis disorders? Iridocyclitis (Inflammation of the iris and the ciliary body.
Polyarticular Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis can involve how many different joints? 5 or more.
Pauciarticular Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis can involve how many different joints? 4 or less. Mainly large joints of hips, knees, ankles and elbows.
What are three forms of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis? Systemic (10%) - Polyarticular (40%) - Pauciarticular (50%)
What positioning is a sign of dysfunction at the midbrain characterized by rigid extension and pronation of the arms and legs. Decerebrate.
What is the term for involuntary arching of the back due to muscle contraction and is a problem that can occur with bacterial meningitis? Opisthotonos.
What are the two phases to an epileptic seizure? Tonic, clonic.
Decorticate posturing patients presents in what position due to brain damage? Flexed position (Flexion).
Decerebrate posturing patient presents in what position due to brain damage? Extended position (Extension)
A continuous seizure that lasts more than 30 min where the individual does not regain premorbid level of consciousness is what? Status Epilepticus (Medical Emergency)
What is the most common causative organism responsible for bone infection? Staphylococcus aureus.
Which group is most at risk for residual damage as a result of encephalitis? Infants.
When one side of the body become paralyzed it is known as? Hemiplegia.
What test is done to test for bacterial meningitis? Lumbar puncture.
What are the most common causative agents responsible for bacterial meningitis? Steptococcus Pneumoniae, Neisseria Meningitidis.
What is used to measure neuromuscular maturity at birth? The Ballards Scoring System
What is the most common post operatve complication related to tonsillectomy/adenoidectomy? Hemorrhage.
An acute non inflammatory encephalopathy and hepatopathy with no reasonable explanation for the cerebral and hepatic abnormalities is what? Reye's Syndrome.
What are some of the actual known etiological causes of Reye's Syndrome? Use of aspirin to treat signs and symptoms associated with a syndrome and associated with a viral illness (ie flu, chicken pox)
What test is done to get a definitive diagnosis for Reye's Syndrome? Liver biopsy.
Self limiting Juvenile Idiopathic Vascular necrosis of the femoral head is known as what? Legg-Calve'-Perthes Disease
A complex deformity in three plans, usually involving lateral curvature, spinal rotation causing rib asymmetry, and thoracic hypokyphosis is known as what? Scoliosis.
Which type of Scoliosis is easily correctable and why? Functional Scoliosis. It is a matter of correcting poor posture.
What is another name for Nasopharyngitis? The common cold.
What is the most common inherited cause of mental retardation where the mother is the carrier? Fragile X Syndrome.
What is the most common chromosomal abnormality? Down Syndrome.
What is the hallmark symptom of Down Syndrome? Failure to make eye contact.
A hereditary disorder characterized by lung congestion and infection and malabsorption of nutrients by the pancreas is known as? Cystic Fibrosis.
What are two basic problems related to the GI system as seen in Cystic Fibrosis? Steatorrhea and prolapsed rectum.
How is Cystic Fibrosis diagnosed? Sweat glands.
What is the preferred temperature reading site on infants and children? Axillary - Tympanic - *Rectal only if febrile
What is the normal temp variation in infants? 96.6-99.5
What is the normal pulse rate of an infant? 120 beats per minute.
What is the average respiratory rate of an infant? 30 breaths per minute.
What is the average BP for an infant? 90/60
What are some of the scales used to assess pediatric pain? Wong Baker Faces, Numeric and Poker Chips.
Why are serotonin agents used on patients with Fragile X Syndrome? It helps to control their outbursts.
What medication with severely ill infants or infants with heart and lung problems receive? Ribavirin (Virazole).
What is appropriate therapy for acute pharyngitis but not recommended in children due to it being very painful? IM benzathine penicillin.
What are drugs used to treat absent seizures? ethosuximide (Zarontin) - valproic acid (Depakote)
What are three drugs commonly used to treat partial and/or clonic tonic seizures? carbanazepines (Tegretol) - phenytoin (Dilantin) - valproic acid (Depakote)
How long does a course of antibiotics take for treatment of Osteomyelitis? Between 4-6 weeks. IV.
Created by: LizzieTomlin