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Clinical Psych

Test 1

Definition of psychology? Study of behavior of mental processes
Definition of clinical 1. Conducted in a clinic 2. Observing patients 3. Characteristics by diagnostic symptoms
Extended definition of clinical Integration of science, theory, practice to understand & alleviate maladjustment, disability, discomfort, & promote human adaptation, adjustment, & dev. Focus on intellectual, emotional, biological, psychological, social & beh aspects across lifespan.
Where are over 50% of psychologists? Either clinical (48%) or counseling (7%)- psychotherapy 80, diag&assistant 64, teaching 49, clinical supervision 50, research&writing 51, consultation 47, administrative 53.
What is psychotherapy? Working with individuals, couples, groups, direct assistance (insight). How to do things on own.
What is diagnosis & assistant? Testing & interviewing, understand & classify symptoms.
What is teaching? Full-time, park-time, engaging in workshops. Broad category of training.
What is clinical supervision? One-on-one or small group supervision.
What is research & writing? Collect research or quality assessments. Gathered & analyzed data.
What is consultation? Expert advise or opinions.
What is administrative? Writing reports, keeping records.
Where are psychologists? Privatepractice 39%, universities 18%, combo 15%; correction facilities, nursing homes, insurance comp, assessment, child & family services, psych hospitals->general, outpatient, community, mental healthcare, medschools, univ. counseling centers, v.a.
Training for psychologist? B.S. psych degree 4+ years. M.S./M.A. 2-3 years. Ph.D/Psy.D 5-7 years.
What are the accredited programs for each degree? (bachelors, masters, doctoral) -National assoc. of social work (NASW) -National assoc. of school psychology (NASP) -Master's in counseling: Counseling or accreditation counseling & related Ed. programs (CACREP). -Doctoral programs clin/counseling/school: (APA)
Elements of a psychologist Doctorate in psych, phd (more research based), psyd (more clin based, not as much research).
School psychologist Testing & assessing children-> ADHD, autism, psychosis, anxiety.
Clinical psychologist Traditionally in-patient, more personality assessment.
Counseling psychologist Traditionally out-patient, vocational training.
Counselor Master's or Doctorate. Not involved with testing.
Types of counselors Mental health counselor, community, agency, career, marriage & family, school, substance abuse.
Social Worker B.S.W. or M.S.W. or D.S.W. Case worker-> With individual or family. Not involved with testing.
Psychiatrist Medical doctorate (M.D.) Not too involved with psychology testing. Different rotation from other M.D.'s by a year.
Three elements of clinical psychology Assessments, intervention, research.
Thales of Miletus Understand regular study.
Dorthy Dix 19th century. Rights & betterment for mentally ill.
Empiricism Zeitgeist- "spirit of the times"
Assessment- Francis Galton late 1800's. Anthropometric lab study measure of motor skills, reaction time.
Assessment- Cattell Late 1800's. Coined term "mental test." Individual differences. Studied mostly physiological differences.
Assessment- Kraepelin 1913. Established 1st classification system disorders; exogenous vs. endogenous.
Assessment- Binet-Alred 1904. Established 1st intelligence test, "Stanford-Binet."
Assessment- Jung 1905. Free association- Participant given random stimuli & to project what they feel describes stimuli.
Assessment- WWI Early 1900's. U.S. (1917) Milestone in assessment.
Assessment- WWI- Woodworth Est. personal data sheet questionnaire to assess abnormality (how person will react to gun fire; how stable).
Assessment- WWI- Army Alpha (...) & Army Beta (...) Army Alpha- literates. Army Beta- illiterates. To assess ability (intelligence).
Assessment- WWI- Rorschach 1921. Ink blot test (psychodynamic). Use as projective technique.
Assessment- WWI- Strong vocational interest blank 1927. Used in career assessment.
Assessment- WWI- Terman at Stanford University 1916. Stanford-Binet intelligence test.
Assessment- WWI- Hathaway & McKinley 1940's. Est. first MMPI- objective personality test compared to Rorschach.
Assessment WWI- APA 1952. APA published first DSM. Classify & describe.
What is intervention? Treatment.
Intervention- Charcot Late 1800's. Hypnosis to treat hysteria. Controversial.
Intervention- Breuer & Freud Psychoanalysis, especially Freud had major impact on mental health treatment. Freud- also involved with interpretation of dreams.
Intervention- Healy 1909. First child guidance psychologist treatment, delinquents.
Intervention- WWII When psychology started to grow. Gvnt started heavily funding psychology treatment/psych programs.
Intervention- WWII- Dollard & Millard 1950. Published book "Psychology & Psychotherapy"
Intervention- WWII- Carl Rodgers 1951. Published book "Client-centered therapy"
Intervention- WWII- Hans Eysenck 1952. Published critique "Therapy lacks Effectiveness" & began to evaluate therapy.
Intervention- WWII- 1990's Managed care has impact on psychology services, empirically validated treatment.
Research- William Wundt 1879. Leipzig, Germany- First psych lab.
Research- W. James 1879. Principles of psychology. First research in psychology.
Research- Clinical- Test development, outcomes, case studies. Not rigorous.
Research- Clinical- Smith & Glass 1977. Meta-analysis of outcomes on research.
Research- Clinical- DSMIII 1980's. Took research into account, Etiology & course.
Research: Important journals Journal Clinical Psych., Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psych., Journaling of Counseling, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, and Journal of Counseling & Development.
Lightner Witmer 1896. "Birth" of clinical psychology. Est. 1st psych clinic @ university of Penn. Formed 1st clinical journal "Psychology of clinic." Est. sub discipline. Set up 1st clinical training program. Set up new identity for psych. New branch->Clinical.
APA Formed in 1892. In 1909, clinical psych division was est.
Chauncey Loutttit 1939. Published 1st clinical psychology textbook. WWII- V.A. developed internships.
Connecticut In 1945, 1st state to certify psychologists. By 1949, 42 schools Ph.D. in clinical psychology. Presently, over 200 APA accredited.
Boulder Conference 1949. Est. the scientist-practitioner model (Boulder model). Training program for graduate programs.
Vail Conference Practitioner-scholar model. Training program for graduate programs.
Ethical Standards 1953. First ethical standards established. 1995, APA supports prescription privileges.
Current Issues 1. Conflict training models 2. Psy.D. quality concerns 3. Internships- aren't enough "good" ones 4. Managed care- control costs & services 5. Prescription privileges
Ethical Principles Rule #1: Do no harm to self, community, or other.
Ethical Principles- Informed consent When working with client, they need to know limitations to therapy (confidentiality), signing paper, not just therapist telling client.
Ethical Principles- Breaking confidentiality Giving signs of future harm to self, others, or admit child/elderly abuse. Not what they "said" they did.
Ethical Principles- Refer & Consult Refer (R)- if feel cannot treat (can't handle personality disorder) or do have too many clients. *Only do what qualified to do through training & experience. Consult (C) Treating patient.
Dual Roles No sex, friends/family, other significant role/relationship.
Tarasoff vs. Board of Regents Having to do with confidentiality. Duty to warn. University of California.
Three primary reasons doing research in clinical psychology 1. Efficacy- effectiveness 2. Etiology- causation/influences 3. Basic knowledge- general theory building & testing
How/Approaches to Research Empirical (observation). 1. Quantitative- (statistics) 2. Qualitative- (words) hear peoples stories, then look for themes.
1.Case study Qualitative. Examine 1 individual thoroughly.
2.Experimental Quantitative. Cause & effect.
Things you need for experimental: 1. Random assignment- everyone has = opportunity to get assigned to groups. 2. At least 2 groups- controlled & experimental. Placebo effect. Hawthorne effect. Quazi-experimental- compares 2 groups but w/o random assign. or control.
3.Correlational study Seeing whether or not one variable is related to another. Relatedness to two or more variables. Quazi-experimental. Spurious (3rd variable).
Statistics- variance dispersion of scores. Stats based on shared variance. Correlation based on strength of relation (both pointing up or down= positive) (going opposite=negative).
Statistic significance Not random chance, actually happened. r= .36, p< .05
Regression Looking at many correlations at once. Also, differences between groups.
t-tests Differences in average scores between two groups.
F-test differences among more than two groups at once. Post-hoc, goes back & evaluates t-test.
Counseling/Psychotherapy Process of engagement between two people. Cornerstone; helping relationship, interacting within ethical boundaries: caring, attend, conducive-> insight by exploring, practicing, & emoting with interactional judging.
Three crucial elements for helping relationships 1. Genuine- you & client being who you/they really are. 2. Empathy- understanding client's world as if your own. (Put yourself in their place) 3. Warmth- caring.
Psychodynamic approach Unconscious motivation or conflict, unaware. Can be instinctual, but usually past experience.
Charcot Known for work on hypnosis & treatment on hysteria.
Breuer Working on hypnosis to find past experiences & talk therapy. Anna O & "The talking cure"
Freud Personality structure- (unconscious & development). Id, Ego, Superego.
Jung Personality structure. Understanding unconscious
Three levels of the mind 1. Conscious- aware (small) 2. Preconscious- somewhat aware, can retrieve. 3. Unconscious- unaware most of the time. Instinct, past experience, repression, sexual desires, aggression.Strongest part of mind & most powerful on what influences you,no contr
Psychic determinism Everything you do has reason.
Parapraxes A.k.a "Freudian slip"
3 elements to get insight 1. Free association 2. Analyze resistance (reluctance to change) 3. Analyze transference (client projects on therapist)
Two levels of dream analysis Latent content- pure unconscious. what the dream actually means, the underlying meaning. Manifest content- what the dream contains.
Jung relative to Freud. De-emphasized sex. Emphasis on dream analysis.
Alder emphasized social relationships. Insecurity, neurotic- how past effects you now.
Ego psychology stress the ego. conflict-free functioning. Becoming more rational & knowing self.
Interpersonal therapy Established as EVT (empirically validated treatment). Brieft psychoanalysis. Interpersonal functioning insight. 75% improvement in depression.
Interventions Method of inducing change in client behavior, feelings or thinking. 1. "Gewy" 2. Not fixing. Guiding. Help change. 3. Have reason to do what you do (techniques you choose) 4. Some conditions are more treatable than others
Techniques serve several purposes (six) 1.Viewed as expert role (appearance) 2.Induce catharsis (release of emotions) 3. Work on relationship (basically an atmosphere/envir where client can be comfy) 4. Anxiety reduction 5. Give insight: interpreting 6. Mastery (building confidence)
Need to have in career: "Fit" between client & counselor. Real or perceived. Shared understanding, similarity.
Counseling process: (five) 1. initial contact- can happen on phone 2. assessment-what is wrong w/them 3.goals,what to accomplish 4.Treat them 5. Termination-usually follow up. meet goals & see improvement
Created by: 546496914