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CFN 403 Part 2

CFN 403 Biophysical - PART 2

The superior chambers of the heart are known as left & right atria
The two inferior (bottom) chambers of the heart are known as the ventricles
The ventricles and atria are separated by a septum
Two large veins called the superior and inferior ? bring blood into the ? of the heart Vena Cava, right atrium
From the right atria the blood passes into ? via the tricuspid valve right ventricle
From the right ventricle the blood is passed to the ? Pulmonary artery
Where does the blood go after the pulmonary artery? to pulmonary aterioles to be oxygenated
The oxygenated blood returns to the heart via the ? where it enters into the ? of the heart pulmonary veins, left atrium
After passing into the left ventricle the blood is pumped out of the heart via the Aorta (from where it circulates around the body)
The heart has its own blood supply - list eh main vessels in the coronary circulation from where blood leaves the aorta left & right coronary arteries - first branch of arteries, then to capillaries back to cardiac veins to the coronary sinus to the aorta
Arteries carry what type of blood away from your heart? Oxygenated
The pulmonary arteries carries deoxygenated blood to where? the lungs
Haemaglobin carries what through the blood? Oxygen
A pulse is felt... wherever an artery crosses the bone
How many layers does an artery have? 3 - the middle layer is smooth muscle. Arteries have more muscle so they can pulse
Veins have a ? muscle layer thin
What does sustole mean? Squeeze (sustolic)
What does diatole mean? Relax (diastolic)
What does aystole mean? No heartbeat
What is blood made up of Red blood cells, plasma, white blood cells (leucocytes, platelets
The red blood cells (ethrocytes) carried how many haemaglobin? 4 - red blood cells are shapped like a button and contain 4 haemaglobin on top.
What is plasma? fluid medium for cells to move around. is made up of 90% water and the rest is nutrients/hormones
What is the purpose of white blood cells? To fight infection
What are platelets and what do they do? tiny pieces of cell that make blood clots form to stop bleeding
What are some examples of White blood cells? Granulocytes & neutrophils (clean up) eosinophils & basophils (fight disease)
In babies and young children where are blood cells made? In the bone marrow
In adults where are the majority of blood cells made? In the vertebrate
What is life span of a red blood cell? 4 months (120 days)
What is the life span of a white blood cell only lives for a short time - and only made when needed
How long do platelets survive for? 9 days!
Where would you find the femoral artery? Along the femur (thigh) bone
Where would you find the radial artery? Down by your wrist
Where is the carotid artery? In your neck
to recap...in the hear the blood goes in the ? and out through the? in the artiums and out the ventricles
The poplitteal artery is found where? Behind the knee
Respiratory system (yay!)....What is the medical name for oxygen starvation? Asphyxia
What is the medical name for normal quiet breathing? Eupnea
What is the medical term for a collapsed lung atelctasis
Sounds heard in the lungs that resemble bubbling are called?? Rales
irregular breathing beginning with shallow breaths that increase in depth and rapidity then decreases and cease altogether is called? cheyne-stokes
Inflammation of the bronchi and bronchioles is called bronchitis
List 5 functions of the upper respiratory tract: filter, warm, moisten the incoming air, inhale, exhale
The tracheal has a ciliated mucous membrane. what is the function of the cilia? movement to get foreign bodies out of the lungs.
Why does the trachea have C shaped cartilage rings? To prevent the trachea from collapsing and also to protect it.
The mouth contains what? Teeth (34+wisdom) used for mastication, Tastebuds - sweet/sour, salt & bitter tongue - for mastication (chewing & swallowing), & diction (speech)
Name three salivary enzymes and their purpose Lysozyme & IgA (antibacterial) Amylase (breaks down start into simpler sugars) Salivary Lipase - begins fat digestion - added into saliva but acts later.
The mouth breaks food down into a what? Bolus
Food in the stomach is referred to as Chyme
The cardiac sphincter is where on the stomach? The top
Where is the phyloric sphincter on the stomach? at the bottom
How does food move through the digestive system? using peristalsis (contracting and releasing)
What does the mucous membrane in the stomach contain? Acid glands
What acid is released in the stomach and what does it do? Hydochhloric acid - breaks down food, works on the lipase and starts to break it down. HCl activates protease enzyme which digests protein in stomach.
The stomach contains what which curdles milk? Rennin
Why is the stomach lining not all flat? Because it increases the surface area = increased absorption.
What is the purpose of the mucous membrane? To protect from the HCl
The pancreas releases what? What are they used for? digestive enzymes. To breakdown carbohydrates, proteins & fats. It is highly alkaline to neutralise the chyme from the stomach
The pancreatic juices drop into the duodenum and bile duct - name 3 pancreatic juices Trypsin - breaks down protein Amalyase - breaks down carbohydrates Lipase - turns fat into fatty acids
The Islets of Langehans on the pancreas produce what? Insulin which goes into blood
What does insulin do? gets sugar into cells. The only part of the body that doesn't need insulin is the brain.
The small intestine has three parts. name them. The duodenum (Beginning), the jejunum (middle) and the illium (end)
Where is bile produced, where is it stored and what does it do? Produced in liver, stored in gall bladder and enters into bile duct into duodenum - breaks down fat
What does the liver do? converts glucose to glycogen, makes urea, makes amino acids, filters harmful substances, stores vitamins & minerals and maintains proper levels of glucose in the blood.
Why does the small intestine have villi? to increase the surface areas, slows the passage of food and more can be absorbed
What are the 4 parts of the large intestine? Ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid (s bend)
What is used to make the bulk of cell structure and functional substances such as enzymes? Amino Acids (proteins)
The most used substance for producing the energy rich ATP is called? Carbohydrates
The enzyme that digests protein in the stomach is called? Protease
The absorption of most of the digested nutrients takes place in the walls of the?? Small intestine (jejunum)
Sugars (Carbs) C6H12O6 (Glucose) + O2 = ? Energy, CO2 and H2O vapour
What is neutral pH? 7 (water should be this)
What does G.I. mean? Glycaemic index (sugar in blood)(should be 4-7)
The adrenal glands are found where ? On top of kidneys
Ureters go from the kidneys to the ? Bladder
The outside of the kidney is called the Fibrous Capsule
From the bladder the urine passes down the ? Urethra
What is the function of the mucous membrane in the urinary system? To protect against the acid of urine
Approximately what percentage of cardiac output passes through the kidneys with each circulation of the blood? 25% (1200 mls of blood per minute)
What three processes are performed by the kidney to form urine? Filtration - renal corpusles Reabsorption (renal tubules)- some water, glucose & salts (renal tubules) Secretion
The funny shaped part inside the kidneys is called the Calyx major (at top) and calyx minor (at bottom)
the round parts in the mid layer of the kidneys are called the renal pyramids
The layer between the pyramids and the fibrous capsule is called the cortex
Why can kidney disease lead to high glucose levels in the urine? If kidneys not processing properly then glucose doesn't get reabsorbed and ends up being secreted. If protein in urine it is because they aren't working properly.
How do sperm move? they are filled with lots of mitochondria to give it energy to move
Ovaries are not attached to fallopian tubes - true or false? True
Name 5 hormones produced in the brain (pituitary gland) and ovaries... Oestrogen, progesterone, Lutenising, follicle stimulating, oxytocin
What are the 3 salivary glands Salivary glands - parotid (at back), sublingual (under tongue), submandular - (under jaw)
Created by: Clare C