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CFN 403 Biophysical

CFN 403 Biophysical - PART 1!!

QuestionAnswer
What are the 11 systems of the body? Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Muscular, Nervous, Endocrine, Immune, Digestive, Urinary, Integumentary, Skeletal, Reproductive
What is the function of the cardiovascular system Transport system - pumps O2, C02, nutrients, waste, hormones around the body
What are the components of the cardiovascular system Heart, veins, arteries, capillaries, blood (plasma, red/white bc, platelets, lymphocytes)
What is the function of the respiratory system Carries air in and out of the lungs for the exchange of gases. Warms, Moistens and Filters
What are the components of the respiratory system? nose, trachea, larynx, bronchii, lungs
What is the function of the muscular system? Works with the skeleton to move the body. Smooth muscles & cardiac muscle (striated but not controllable)
What are the components of the muscular system? Muscles, tendons & ligaments
What is the function of the nervous system? Controls thoughts, movement and other body systems
What are the components of the nervous system? Brain & Spinal cord - Central nervous system, nerves, (nerve cells contain grey matter - in circle and white matter - the tail part)
What is the function of the Endocrine system? The regulatory system which release hormones for reproduction, growth and metabolism
What are the components of the endocrine system? Glands that release hormones ie pituitary, pancreas islets, ovaries, testes, thyroid, adrenal
What is the function of the immune system? For defence
What are the components of the immune system? Spleen, bone marrow, lymph nodes, white blood cells, antibody production
What is the function of the digestive system? To alter food by chemical actions to convert into simple forms to be absorbed.
What are the components of the digestive system? Mouth, teeth, oesphagus, stomach, small and large intestines, gall bladder, liver & pancreas
What is the function of the urinary system? Eliminates waste from the body. Maintains water and chemical balance
What are the components of the urinary system? Bladder, kidneys, urethra, ureters x 2
What is the function of the integumentary system? protective and sensory functions. Regulates temp and turns UV rays from the sun into Vit D.
What are the components of the integumentary system? Skin, hair, nails
What is the function of the skeletal system? Provides a framework for the body
What are the components of the skeletal system? Bones (206)
What is the function of the reproductive system? Makes new humans!
What are the components of the reproductive system? Penis, testes, ovaries, uterus, vagina, breasts
What is the cell membrane and what is its purpose? Soft flexible self sealing outer boundary of cell. Controls what enters and leaves cell
Why is the cell membrane self sealing? So it can reseal breaks for division, keeps it in tact. regulates transport of molecules through cell.
Why do substances need to enter or leave cell? Energy in and waste out. Nutrients enter into cell, water in and out, gets rid of waste, some things manufactured in cells need to come out.
What are cilia? Hair like structures extend from cell membranes of certain cells.
Where are cilia found? Lungs, air passages, nose. Purpose is to keep foreign bodies out and filter the air. Protects from germs in lungs
What is a flagellum & what cell type has flagella? Long hair like structure used for swimming. Sperm
Where are microvilli found and why do we have them? In the small intestine - to increase the surface area of the membrane for absorption or secretion.
What are the 'bits' inside cells called? Organelles (little organs)
What does the nucleus contain? DNA
How many pairs of DNA? 23 pairs
What does the rough endoplasmic reticulum do? Manufactures proteins that are to be secreted from the cell
What does the smooth endoplasmic reticulum do? Manufactures steriods
Ribosomes make what? Protein
What is the purpose of golgi bodies and where are some examples? Receive products from the ER and package them up for secretion through cell membrane. Ie liver, glands (thyroid), mucous cells.
What are mitochondria The powerhouse of cells. Extract the energy in food and convert it into cell energy (ATP)
What are lysosomes? Contain enzymes that digest and destroy surplus, temporary, damaged or defective chemicals, organelles, cells and tissues. produced in liver and spleen.
What do centrioles do? Spin microtubles that move and separate the chromosomes during cell division.
What is the main component of cell membrane? phospholipid molecules
What is the role of protein in the cell membrane to transport water soluble molecules
What is the main role of DNA? To transmit hereditary information
What does intercellular mean? Fluid located within cells
What does interstial mean? fluid located in spaces between cells
What is plasma? The liquid part of blood in blood vessels
What is the main positive electrolyte in plasma? Sodium (Na+)
Give the name of the main positive intracellular electrolyte? Potassium (K)
What is the abbreviation for Sodium Chloride? NaCl
What does Fe2 =? Iron
Why is iron needed? For haemglobin
What is C6 H12 O6? Glucose
What are some other common molecules? O2 = oxygen, H20 - water, CO2 - carbon dioxide, HCl = Hydrochloric acid,
What is diffusion? Movement of particles from area of high concentration to low concentration
What is osmosis? Net movement of soluable forms through a selectively permeable membrane from lesser area of concentration to a higher - to make it equal tension.
What is active transport? Movement of solute particles from low to high concentration by means of a carrier molecule - uses cellular energy in or out of cell
What does isotonic mean? two fluids with same osmotic pressure (concentration)
What does hypertonic mean? Solution containing higher level of salt (NaCl) than is found in living red blood cell
What does hypotonic mean? Solution with lower concentration - low osmality
What are the layers of skin? Epidermis, Dermis, Subcutaneous
Purpose of Epidermis? Waterproof - prevents loss or absorption of water,
What is the cell membrane and what is its purpose? Soft flexible self sealing outer boundary of cell. Controls what enters and leaves cell
Why is the cell membrane self sealing? So it can reseal breaks for division, keeps it in tact. regulates transport of molecules through cell.
Why do substances need to enter or leave cell? Energy in and waste out. Nutrients enter into cell, water in and out, gets rid of waste, some things manufactured in cells need to come out.
What are cilia? Hair like structures extend from cell membranes of certain cells.
Where are cilia found? Lungs, air passages, nose. Purpose is to keep foreign bodies out and filter the air. Protects from germs in lungs
What is a flagellum & what cell type has flagella? Long hair like structure used for swimming. Sperm
Where are microvilli found and why do we have them? In the small intestine - to increase the surface area of the membrane for absorption or secretion.
What are the 'bits' inside cells called? Organelles (little organs)
What does the nucleus contain? DNA
How many pairs of DNA? 23 pairs
What does the rough endoplasmic reticulum do? Manufactures proteins that are to be secreted from the cell
What does the smooth endoplasmic reticulum do? Manufactures steriods
Ribosomes make what? Protein
What is the purpose of golgi bodies and where are some examples? Receive products from the ER and package them up for secretion through cell membrane. Ie liver, glands (thyroid), mucous cells.
What are mitochondria The powerhouse of cells. Extract the energy in food and convert it into cell energy (ATP)
What are lysosomes? Contain enzymes that digest and destroy surplus, temporary, damaged or defective chemicals, organelles, cells and tissues. produced in liver and spleen.
What do centrioles do? Spin microtubles that move and separate the chromosomes during cell division.
What is the main component of cell membrane? phospholipid molecules
What is the role of protein in the cell membrane to transport water soluble molecules
What is the main role of DNA? To transmit hereditary information
What does intercellular mean? Fluid located within cells
What does interstial mean? fluid located in spaces between cells
What is plasma? The liquid part of blood
What is the main positive electrolyte in plasma? Sodium (Na+)
Give the name of the main positive intracellular electrolyte? Potassium (K)
What is the abbreviation for Sodium Chloride? NaCl
What does Fe2 =? Iron
Why is iron needed? For haemglobin
What is C6 H12 O6? Glucose
What are some other common molecules? O2 = oxygen, H20 - water, CO2 - carbon dioxide, HCl = Hydrochloric acid,
What is diffusion? Movement of particles (gas) or solution from area of high concentration to low concentration (eg a fart!!)
What is osmosis? Net movement of soluable forms through a selectively permeable membrane from lesser area of concentration to a higher - to make it equal tension.
What is active transport? Movement of solute particles from low to high concentration by means of a carrier molecule - uses cellular energy in or out of cell
What does isotonic mean? two fluids with same osmotic pressure (concentration)
What does hypertonic mean? Solution containing higher level of salt (NaCl) than is found in living red blood cell
What does hypotonic mean? Solution with lower concentration - low osmality
What are the layers of skin? Epidermis, Dermis, Subcutaneous
Purpose of Epidermis? Waterproof - prevents loss or absorption of water,prevents microorganisms entering body, Vit D made on this layer, contains melanin,
What does the dermis contain? nerve endings, large amounts of extra cellular fluid, secretory parts of skin glands, roots and most length of hair follicules
What does the subcutaneous layer contain? Fat cells, blood and lymphatic vessels, contains temp regulators
What is the purpose of the subcutaneous layer? Is important for temp regulation, anchors the skin to underlying muscles and bones.
Other than epidermis what other 2 structures are made of keratin? Nails & hair
Distinguish functions between sweat gland and sebaceous glands Sebaceous - secrete oil for skin & hair. Sweat glands produce tranparent water liquid that eliminates ammonia & uric acid, helps maintain body temp. releases salt & water
Skin neglect can cause? Bed sores (from pressure areas), allergies to things can cause rashes, dry skin can cause cracking and allow infection in.
What is homeostasis? Maintenance of the normal function of the body. Body's ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world changes.
examples of homeostasis? Maintaining body temp, glucose level in blood, water balance in body, pH level, CO2 level
What are the three components of homeostasis? Receptor, Control Centre (Brain) & effector
What is the anatomical position? Head erect, eyes open, arms to side, palms facing forward, feet together
What is the plane that divides the body into upper and lower parts? Transverse (or horizontal) plane
What is the plan that divides body into anterior and posterior? Coronal (or frontal) plane
The ________ plane divides the body into left and right sides (anywhere on body) sagittal
The mid-saggital plane divides the body into... exact midline
Lateral means? away from midline - on side
Midline means? Centre of body
Medial means towards the midle
Anatomy means structure
physiology means function
Distal means further away from midline (used with limbs)
Inferior means below
Superior means above
proximal means closer to midline (used with limbs)
Anterior/Ventral means front
Posterior/dorsal means back
Hands palmar aspect means front of hand
What part is the plantar aspect referring to on your foot? The sole (bottom part)
The top of the foot is called dorsal
The axillae means armpit
Supine means face up
Prone means face down
What is an example of a synovial joint? The knee
What is the synovial membrane? connective tissue membrane lining spaces between bones and joints. Secretes fluid to lubricate joint. Acts as cushion to enclose fluid)
What is the purpose of a fibrous capsule? Permits movement of joint and flexibility. Tensile strength - allows joint to stretch without stress - resists dislocation. provides stability.
Movement of your leg in and out is an example of what type of movement? abduction - adduction (move away, bring in)
Bringing your jaw up and down is an example of what? Protraction (move forward) retraction (bring back in)
Turning your head from side to side is? Rotation - pivoting bone on own axis
Rotating your shoulder is an example of Circumduction
the movement of flipping your hand from palm down to palm up is called? Pronation (palm down) supination (palm up)
Tendons attach what? Muscle to muscle
Ligaments attach what? muscle to bone
Examples of smooth muscles (non voluntary movement) bladder, uterus, intestines, fallopian tubes, urethras, ureters
Striated muscles do what? Only contract & relax - work like a hinge flexing and extending.
What is a striated muscles we cannot control? The heart
Muscle at back of thigh? Hamstring
Muscle at back of calf? Gastrocnemius
The deltoid is found where? shoulder front & back
What muscle attaches to the patella (knee) Quadriceps
The front of the upper arm muscle is called? Biceps brachii
The muscle at the back of the upper arm is called? Triceps brachii (has three chambers)
The muscle at the back of the neck - middle of back is called? trapezius
Intercostal muscles can be found... on the sides of the abdomen
The diaphram muscles are found... on under the ribs above tje rectus abdominis muscles
Created by: Clare C