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Personality Psych.


What is libido? What is thanatos? Developed by Freud. Life instinct. Death instinct.
What is abreaction? reuniting/reconnecting memory & emotions of repressed situation.
How is abreaction a part of change in the psychoanalytic process? Helps bring memory to conscious and able to help the person be more comfortable with it.
What is resistance? What is transference? R- Forces that repress disturbing impulse/trauma now work to resist psychoanalytic process. T- stage when patient reacts to analyst as if he/she were important figure. (Ex., why didn't you return my call immediately to set up next appt?"
Repression process of preventing unacceptable thoughts, feelings, or urges from reaching conscious awareness.
denial when situation is anxiety-provoking. a common defense mechanism.
displacement threatening/unacceptable impulse redirected from original source to nonthreatening source.
rationalization generating acceptable reasons for outcomes that might otherwise appear socially unacceptable. Ex., a student who receives fail might blame it on teacher that they did not explain material clearly.
reaction formation An attempt to stifle the expression of an unacceptable urge, a person may continually display a flurry of behavior that indicates the opposite impulse. Ex., woman is angry with supervisor, instead of displacing anger, may go out of her way to be kind.
sublimation According to freud, most adaptive def. mech. Is the channeling of unacceptable sexual or aggressive instincts into socially desired activities. Ex., going out to chop wood when you are angry rather than acting on that anger.
projection based on the notion that sometimes we see in others the traits and desires we find most upsetting in ourselves. Ex., asking why your friend is upset when really you are the one who is upset.
Conscious Contains thoughts, feelings, & perceptions that are presently aware of.
Preconscious Not presently thinking about, but can easily retrieve. "What did you wear yesterday?"
Unconscious According to Freud, largest part of mind. Forgotten memories that you didn't know you had forgotten. Cannot be retrieved easily. (Repressed memories are stored here).
What is the "id" Source of all drives and urges. Something we are born with. Impulses. (Acts like the devil part of mind).
How does pleasure principle corporate with the "id" id operates according to this. Is the desire for immediate gratification.
Primary process-thinking & it's relationship with "id" id operates through this. Thinking without logical rules of conscious thoughts.
With fulfillment when fantasy & urge is temporarily satisfied. Something available is conjured up and the image of it is temporarily satisfying.
What is the ego? Constrains the id to reality. Develops between ages 2-3. (The angel).
How does the ego operate within reality principle? Ego works to postpone the discharge of id urges until an appropriate situation arises.
How does the ego engage with secondary process thinking? Developmental of strategies for solving problems & obtaining satisfaction.
What is the superego? Internalizes values, morals, & ideals of society. Mediates id & ego. Children develop around age 5.
How does the superego operate? makes us feel guilty, shame, and embarrassment when did something "wrong." makes us feel pride when we did something "right."
What is objective anxiety? Fear. occurs in response to real, external threat to the person.
What is neurotic anxiety? When there is direct conflict between id & ego.
What is moral anxiety? caused by conflict between ego & superego. Ex., always guilty for thinking they are not living up to "proper" standards.
Oral stage occurs during the initial 18 months after birth. Pleasure & tension reduction around lips, mouth, and tongue.
Anal stage Develops between 18 months and 3 years. Source of sexual pleasure. Obtains pleasure from first expelling feces, then after toilet training, retaining feces.
Phallic stage Develops between 3 and 5. Discovers that he has a penis or that she does not have a penis.
Latency stage Develops between 6 and puberty. When the child is going to school and learning skills and abilities necessary to take on the role of an adult.
Genital stage Begins around puberty and lasts through one's life. Libido is focused on genitals, but not in the manner of self-manipulation associated by a specific conflict.
What is identification so important in the Oedipal stage? It makes the beginning of the resolution of the Oedipal conflict and the successful resolution of the phallic stage of psychosexual development for boys.
How does psychoanalysis work? What are it's goals? A method of psychotherapy. A technique for helping individuals who are experiencing a mental disorder or even relatively minor problems with living. Reconstructing a personality.
How does free association allow access to the unconscious? Client is confortable and relaxed. Speaks what ever is on their mind. After awhile, if not resisting, will lead to unconscious thoughts/feelings.
What is latent content? What is manifest content? L- Pure unconscious material, what the elements of the dream represent. M- what the dream actually contains.
Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development? 1. Trust/mistrust- caregiving. 2. autonomy/shame&doubt- indep. 3. initiative/guilt 4. industry/inferiority- school, rdy to learn 5. identity/role confusion 6. intimacy/isolation 7. generativity/stagnation 8. integrity/despair
What is object relations theory? emphasizes social relationships and their origins in childhood.
What are the basic assumptions of object relations theory? 1. Internal wishes, desires, and urges of the child are not as important as his or her developing relationships with significant external others, particularly parents. 2. Others, esp. mother, become internalized by the child in the form of mental objts.
Separation anxiety Bowlby- Being split up from parents/caregiver. (Holding a strangers hand on accident & feeling the rush of anxiety afterwards).
Attachment Harlow- Between infant & primary caregiver required physical contact with a warm and responsive mother and that it is vitally important to the psychological development of the infant.
Strange situation procedure Ainsworth- procedure used for identifying differences between children in how they react to separation from their mothers.
Ainsworth's three styles of attachment? 1. securely attached- stoically endured the separation & went about exploring the room, waiting patiently. 2. avoidantly attached- avoided mothers when they returned, unfazed when mothers left. 3. ambivalently attached- very anxious about mother leaving
What is a motive? What is a need? Motive- internal states that arouse & direct behavior toward specific objects or goals. Needs- states of tension within a person.
Two of Henry Murray's "needs" Ambition needs- achievement: to master, manipulate, organize others. To overcome obstacles and excel. Social Affection needs- succor: to receive aid from others. to have one's needs gratified by another. To be supported, nursed, advised, loved.
What is the TAT? Thermatic Apperception Test. Consists of a set of black-and-white images, which are unclear. Person is asked to make up story about what is happening to picture.
How is TAT scored? After person tells story, psychologist codes the stories for the presence of various types of imagery associated with particular motives.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs-5 levels. 1. physiological needs- need for food/water. survival 2. safety needs- shelter, security. 3. belongingness needs- strive to belong in group 4. esteem need- esteem from others & self-esteem 5. self-actualization need- develop one's potential
Humanistic School emphasizes three major characteristics 1. need for achievement- bill gates 2. need for power- desire to have an impact on others 3. need for intimacy- desire for warmth & fulfilling relationships with others
Four characteristics of a self-actualization person, according to Maslow. Acceptance of themselves, others, nature, & fate- realize everything has fault. Spontaneity- trust impulse. Problem-focus- interest in large ethical probs. Creativity- ability to see connections between things no one has seen before.
What is conditional/unconditional positive regard? Con- positive regard, when it must be earned by meeting certain conditions. uncon- when parents & sig. others accept the child w/o conditions.
How does conditional/unconditional positive regard relate to positive self-regard? Are able to accept themselves & their own faults b/c have experienced unconditional positive self-regard.
What are the core conditions of client-centered therapy? genuine acceptance- on the part of the therapist. unconditional positive regard- for the client empathic understanding- client must feel that the therapist understands them.
Empathy makes the core conditions of client-centered therapy therapeutic.
Created by: 546496914